about 3,000 companies in the Finnish maritime cluster, but many of them are
very small ones. Therefore, the economic figures in the study cover about 1,500
limited companies. According to the financial statement figures of 2014, the
combined turnover of the Finnish maritime cluster is 12.7 billion euro. The
share of marine industries is 7.9 billion euro, shipping businesses 3.3 billion
euro and port functions 1.3 billion euro. The maritime cluster employs 48,400
persons in activities directly related to the maritime sector. The value added to
the national economy was 3.8 billion euro.
vary a lot between sectors and also between individual companies. All fields of
businesses in the maritime cluster are traditionally very sensitive to economic
fluctuations. Changes in the global economy have direct impacts on the need of
sea transports, and about 40% of the value formation in the Finnish maritime
cluster depends on the flows of cargo transports. In general, however, the
outlook is positive. There are also some new promising spearhead companies in
the new Blue Growth sector. Only about one sixth of the companies in the
cluster have reduced their business in the maritime sector while a bigger share
have expanded in the sector.
diverse innovation activities going on in the maritime cluster: products,
processes, concepts, services and experience productions. The dynamics of
innovation have changed a lot. First the shipyards made everything by
themselves, then they transformed into incubators and now
the success and innovativeness in the maritime cluster companies is based on visionary
individuals and operating cultures which are open to changes in organizations
and networks. More and more new innovations in the cluster are made by start-up
marine industry is still a strong growth industry with environmentally friendly
and energy-efficient solutions. Masters of Science in marine technology are
needed by design offices and software providers. There is also a lack of
project management experts; wide knowledge concerning mechanical engineering,
ICT, design, programming and logistics is needed.
shipping business the outlook is mainly positive. Shipping companies are
satisfied with the Finnish business policy on shipping and the arrangements
which improved their competitiveness (tonnage tax, labour cost recovery system
and agreement on a mixed crew manning model), but they worry about the
stability of the policy and organization. They
also expect solutions to the problems with financial guarantees in the
investment projects of especially the smaller shipping companies. The
development of freight prices in shortsea shipping is slightly positive.
visible future, the development of cargo tons in Finnish ports will most
probably not see a return to the constant growth it had before year 2008. The
development of general economy impacts directly on cargo tons and reflects on
the profitability and investment capability of ports and port operators.
Transit traffic to and from Russia seems to fade out, too. However, there are
significant investment plans in the ports up to the year 2020 which can be seen
as a sign of a better outlook.
of the Finnish maritime cluster rests heavily on specialisation, competence and
know-how. Therefore, it is highly important that enough resources are allocated
to the education system in order to provide skilled labour to all different
work tasks of the maritime cluster.
was financed mainly by the Ministry of Employment and the Economy and partly by
several Finnish maritime associations. The previous studies of the Finnish
maritime cluster have been made in 2003 and 2008.
Researcher Tapio Karvonen
Tel. +358 40 779 9482