New technologies in medicine and other expert fields

​New digital imaging and storage systems are fundamentally reshaping work in the professions. This is particularly evident in hospitals. Due to technological advances, instead of viewing a single X-ray of a patient as in the past, a radiologist may have to inspect a study consisting of “a stack” of up to 1000 images. Inevitably, the new generation of medical doctors needs to be trained to view new types of images, which are creating new demands for entire professions.

At the same time, new technology is creating new possibilities for training including virtual learning environments including increasingly sophisticated simulations. For instance, the viewing of microscopic pathology slides is no longer confined to the laboratory; digital slides can be viewed anywhere with an internet connection.

The purpose of the project is to find ways of supporting the learner in diverse professional learning environments. In the project, we investigate how people with varying levels of experience view different types of medical images such as virtual pathology slides and CT scans. The project also involves experimenting with new ways of incorporating ICT into training in the domains of medicine, nursing, and business education.


Asplund, S., Johnsson, Å. A., Vikgren, J., Svalkvist, A., Boijsen, M., Fisichella, V., Flinck, A., Wiksel, Å., Ivarsson, J., Rystedt, H., Månsson, L. G., Kheddache, S. & Båth, M. (2011). Learning aspects and potential pitfalls regarding detection of pulmonary nodules in chest tomosynthesis and proposed related quality criteria. Acta radiologica, 52(5), 503-512.

Bertram, R., Kaakinen, J., Helle, L., Bensch, F., Lantto, E., Niemi, P., & Lundbom, N.  Eye movements reflect expertise in interpreting CT studies – a potential tool to measure resident development. (Conditionally accepted to be published in Radiology.)

Bertram, R., Helle, L., Kaakinen, J. K., & Svedström, E. (2013). The Effect of Expertise on Eye Movement Behaviour in Medical Image Perception. PloS one, 8(6), e66169

Gegenfurtner, A., Lehtinen, E., & Säljö, R. (2011). Expertise differences in the comprehension of visualizations: A meta-analysis of eye-tracking research in professional domains. Educational Psychology Review, 23 (4), 523-552.

Gegenfurtner, A., Siewiorek, A., Säljö, R. & Lehtinen, E. (2013). Assessing the Quality of Expertise Differences in the Comprehension of Medical Visualizations. Vocations and Learning. Volume 6, Issue 1 (2013), Page 37-54

Helle, L., Nivala, M., Kronqvist, P., Ericsson, K.A. & Lehtinen, E. (2010). Do prior knowledge, personality and visual perceptual ability predict student performance in microscopic pathology? Medical Education, 44 (6), 621-629.

Helle, L., Nivala, M., Kronqvist, P., Gegenfurtner, A., Björk. (2011). Traditional microscopy instruction versus process-oriented virtual microscopy instruction: a naturalistic experiment with control group. Diagnostic Pathology, 6(Suppl 1), 58.

Husebø, S. E., Rystedt, H., & Friberg, F. (2011). Educating for teamwork–nursing students’ coordination in simulated cardiac arrest situations. Journal of advanced nursing, 67(10), 2239-2255.

Lehtinen, E. (2010). The potential of teaching and learning supported by ICT for the acquisition of deep conceptual knowledge and the development of wisdom. In E. De Corte & J.E. Fenstad (Eds.), From Information to Knowledge; from Knowledge to Wisdom: challenges and changes facing higher education in the digital age (pp. 79-88). London: Portland Press.

Nivala, M., Lehtinen, E., Helle, L., Kronqvist, P., Paranko, J. & Säljö, R. (2013). Histological knowledge as a predictor of medical students’ performance in diagnostic pathology. Anatomical Sciences Education, 6 (6) 361-367.

Nivala, M., Rystedt, H., Säljö, R., Kronqvist, P., & Lehtinen, E. (2012). Interactive visual tools as triggers of collaborative reasoning in entry-level pathology. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 7(4), 499-518.

Nivala, M., Säljö, R., Rystedt, H., Kronqvist, P. & Lehtinen, E. (2012). Using virtual microscopy to scaffold learning of pathology: a naturalistic experiment on the role of visual and conceptual cues. Instructional Science 40 (5), 799-811. 

Rystedt, H., Ivarsson, J., Asplund, S., Johnsson, Å., & Båth, M. (2011). Rediscovering radiology: New technologies and remedial action at the worksite. Social studies of science, 0306312711423433.

Säljö, R. (2010). Digital tools and challenges to institutional traditions of learning: technologies, social memory and the performative nature of learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26(2), 43-64.

Siewiorek, A. Saarinen, E., Lainema, T. & Lehtinen, E. (2012). Learning leadership skills in a simulated business environment. Computers & Education. 58, 121–135.

Siewiorek, A., & Lehtinen, E. (2011). Exploring leadership profiles from collaborative computer gaming. International Journal of Leadership Studies 6 (3), 357-374.

Siewiorek, A., Gegenfurner, A. Lainema, T., Saarinen, E. & Lehtinen, E. (2013). The effects of computer-simulation game training on participants’ opinions on leadership styles. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44 (6) 1012-1035.