Commercial Law

Commercial law as a discipline was born through historic development and is interested in many questions related to the markets. It is often difficult and even somewhat artificial to categorize regulations into private law or public law; for instance, market regulation concerns private law as much as it does public law. Domestic regulations are also, in essence, based on the national, regional (EU), and international (e.g. WTO) regulation levels. The different branches of commercial law are fairly incommensurable and isolated. Unlike in most other fields of law, in commercial law, there are multiple doctrines.

The essential areas of commercial law are company law, market law, and intellectual property law. The key issues of the company are the right to exercise a trade and the different forms of business activities, such as limited liability companies, cooperatives and partnerships.

Market law consists of security market law, which focuses on stock exchange, and consumer law, which describes and defines the legal relationships between entrepreneurs and consumers. Recently, competition law has also become an important part of market law. Regulation concerning public procurements has a great practical impact on the field. Market law can also be seen to include international commercial law, which discusses, for example, questions related to the commerce of movable property across the borders. The essential issue in international commercial law is the conflict of laws, which can also be regarded as a part of a separate field of law, namely private international law.

Intellectual property law has also become a central field of regulation in the society. Intellectual property law includes, for instance, copyright law, trademark law, and patent law.