Group of Functional Materials
Group of Functional Materials in 2014.   


    Research topics     People    Dissertations    Publications    Collaboration

Conjugated polymers and the Spectroelectrochemistry of Thin Films




Ionic Liquids


  Layer-by-Layer Thin Films: Fabrication and Mechanical Properties


​Applied NMR 






Metal-Organic Chemistry  




    Research topics     People    Dissertations    Publications    Collaboration


 Carita Kvarnström​

Conjugated polymers and the thin film Spectroelectrochemistry

​Jukka Lukkari

Properties of thin films

​ Keijo Haapakka



Researchers and teaching staff 

​University Lecturer

Metal-Organic Chemistry

Ari Lehtonen

​University Teacher


Timo Ala-Kleme

University Teacher

Conducting polymers, Fullerenes, Ionic liquids, Spectroelectrochemistry

Pia Damlin

​University Lecturer

Layer-by-layer Thin Films 

Mikko Salomäki


University Teacher

Conducting Polymers, Potentiometric sensors

Ulriika Vanamo

​University Teacher

Applied NMR

Henri Kivelä


 Ph.D. Students


Graphenes, Conducting Polymers, Ionic liquids

Milla Suominen


Markus Räsänen

Conducting Polymers, Spectroelectrochemistry

Nianxing Wang


Sergio Espinosa Dominguez

Conducting Polymers, Spectroelectrochemistry

Bhushan Gadgil



    Research topics     People    Dissertations    Publications    Collaboration
Jussi Kauppila, 2014: 
Graphene from graphite by chemical and physical techniques. Link

Iko Hyppänen, 2012: 

Frequency-Domain and Wide-Pulse Time-Domain Measurements of Lanthanide Luminescence and Lanthanide-Based Resonance Energy Transfer.   Link 

Antti Viinikanoja, 2007:

Self-assembled electroactive mono and multilayers: preparation,

structure and properties.


Henri Kivelä, 2006:

NMR Spectroscopic Structure Elucidation of N-, O-, and P-Containing Heterocycles: Constitution, Configuration and Conformation


Mikko Salomäki, 2005:

Buildup, Structure and Physical Properties of Some Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Films



  Research topics     People    Dissertations    Publications    Collaboration


Gadgil B., Damlin P., Kvarnström C., "Graphene vs. reduced graphene oxide: a comparative study of graphene-based nanoplatforms on electrochromic switching kinetics", Carbon (2015) DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2015.09.065.
Lehtimäki S., Suominen M., Damlin P., Tuukkanen S., Kvarnström C., Lupo D., "Preparation of supercapacitors on flexible substrate with electrodeposited PEDOT/graphene composites", ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces (2015) DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b05937.
Salojärvi D., Peuronen A., Sillanpää R., Damlin P., Kivelä H., Lehtonen A., "Aminobisphenolate supported tungsten disulfide and dithiolene  complexes"
Dalton Transactions 44(20) (2015) 9409.
Viinikanoja A., Kauppila J., Damlin P., Suominen M., Kvarnström C., "In Situ FTIR and Raman Spectroelectrochemical Characterization of  Graphene Oxide upon Electrochemical Reduction in Organic Solvents", Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 17(18) (2015) 12115.

Damlin P., Suominen M., Heinonen M., Kvarnström C., "Non-covalent modification of graphene sheets in PEDOT composite materials by ionic liquids", Carbon 93 (2015) 533.
Gadgil B., Damlin P., Heinonen M., Kvarnstrom C., "One pot synthesis of Au/Au2S nanoparticles-viologen hybrid composite for efficient catalytic applications",        Journal of Materials Chemistry A:Materials for Energy and Sustainability3(8) (2015) 9713.
Gadgil B., Damlin P., Heinonen M., Kvarnstrom C., "A Facile One Step Electrostatically Driven Electrocodeposition of  Polyviologen-Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite films for Enhanced Electrochromic Performance", Carbon 89 (2015) 53.
Gadgil B., Damlin P., Dimitreva E.,  Ääritalo T., Kvarnstrom C., "ESR/UV-Vis-NIR spectroelectrochemical study and electrochromic contrast enhancement of a polythiophene derivative bearing a pendant viologen", RSC Advances 5(53) (2015) 42242 .

Wang N., Kähkönen A., Damlin P., Ääritalo T., Kankare J., Kvarnström C., "Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of branched viologen  derivatives", Electrochimica Acta 154 (2015), 361.

Gadgil B., Dimitreva E., Damlin P., Aaritalo T., Kvarnstrom C., "Redox reactions in a linear polyviologen derivative studied by in situ ESR/UV-vis-NIR spectroelectrochemistry", Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 19(1) (2015) 77.   
Kaisti M., Knuutila A., Boeva Z., Ivaska A., Kvarnström C., Levon K., Low-Cost Chemical Sensing Platform With Organic Polymer Functionalization, IEEE Electron Device Letters 36 (8) (2015) 884. 
Lete C. Gadgil B. Kvarnström, C. ”The electrochemistry of copolymer films based on azulene and 3 thiophene acetic acid, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 742 (2015) 742.


Viinikanoja, A.; Kauppila, J.; Mäkilä, E.; Leiro, J.; Lukkari, J., "Interactions between Graphene Sheets and Ionic Molecules used for the Shear-Assisted Exfoliation of Natural Graphite", Carbon, 2014, 68, 195-209.
Kauppila, J.; Lund, L.; Laiho, T.; Salomäki, M.; Kankare, J.; Lukkari, J., "Effective low temperature reduction of graphene oxide with vanadium(III)", J. Mater. Chem. C, 2014, 2, 3602-3609.
Salomäki, M.; Myllymäki, O.; Hätönen, M.; Savolainen, J.; Lukkari, J., "Layer-by-Layer Assembled Oxidative Films as General Platform for Electrodeless Formation of Conducting Polymers", ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2014, 6, 2325-2334.
Meana-Esteban B. Petr A. Kvarnström, C., Dunsch L. ” Poly(2-methoxynaphthalene):  A spectroelectrochemical study on a fused ring conducting polymer, Electrochimica Acta 115 (2014) 10.
Viinikanoja A., Kauppila J., Damlin P., Mäkilä E., Leiro J., Ääritalo T., Lukkari J.,             "Interactions between graphene sheets and ionic molecules used for the shera-assisted exfoliation of natural graphite", Carbon, vol. 68, pp. 195-209. (

Xhaxhiu K., Kvarnstrom C., Damlin P., Bente K., "Renewable energy in focus: In5Se5Br, a solid material with promising thermoelectric properties for industrial applications", Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 60, pp. 88-96. (

Hanninen M.M., Peuronen A., Damlin P., Tyystjarvi V., Kivela H., Lehtonen A., "Vanadium complexes with multidentate amine bisphenols", Dalton Transactions, vol. 43(37), pp. 14022-14028. ( 

Gadgil B., Damlin P., Aaritalo T., Kvarnstrom C., "Electrosynthesis of viologen cross-linked polythiophene in ionic liquid and its electrochromic properties", Electrochimica Acta, vol. 133, pp. 268-274. ( 

Damlin P., Haetoenen M., Dominquez S.E., Aeaeritalo T. Kivelae H., Kvarnstroem C., "Study of the electrochemical and optical properties of fullerene and methano[60]fullerenediphosphonate derivatives in solution and as self-assembled structures", RSC Advances, vol. 4(16), pp. 8391-8401. (



Lindfors T., Österholm A., Kauppila J., Gyurcsányi RE, "Enhanced electron transfer in composite films of reduced graphene and poly(N-methylaniline)", Carbon, vol. 63, pp. 562  

Ala-Kleme, T., Mäki, A., Mäki, R., Kopperoinen, A., Heikkinen, M. & Haapakka, K. 2013, "Micelle-encapsulated fullerenes in aqueous electrolytes", Journal of Luminescence, vol. 135, pp. 221-226.  

Gabryelczyk, B., Szilvay, G.R., Salomäki, M., Laaksonen, P. & Linder, M.B. 2013, "Selection and characterization of peptides binding to diamond-like carbon", Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 110, pp. 66-73.  

Gadgil, B., Damlin, P., Ääritalo, T., Kankare, J. & Kvarnström, C. 2013, "Electrosynthesis and characterization of viologen cross linked thiophene copolymer", Electrochimica Acta, vol. 97, pp. 378-385. (  

Hänninen, M.M., Paturi, P., Tuononen, H.M., Sillanpää, R. & Lehtonen, A. 2013, "Heptacoordinated molybdenum(VI) complexes of phenylenediamine Bis(phenolate): A stable molybdenum amidophenoxide radical", Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 5714-5721.  

Hassinen, J., Kauppila, J., Leiro, J., Määttänen, A., Ihalainen, P., Peltonen, J. & Lukkari, J. 2013, "Low-cost reduced graphene oxide-based conductometric nitrogen dioxide-sensitive sensor on paper", Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 405, no. 11, pp. 3611-3617.  

Kauppila, J., Kunnas, P., Damlin, P., Viinikanoja, A. & Kvarnström, C. 2013, "Electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide films in aqueous and organic solutions", Electrochimica Acta, vol. 89, pp. 84-89. (  

Lindfors, T., Österholm, A., Kauppila, J. & Pesonen, M. 2013, "Electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide in electrically conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite films", Electrochimica Acta, vol. 110. pp. 428 (  

Rapta, P., Haubner, K., Machata, P., Lukeš, V., Rosenkranz, M., Schiemenz, S., Klod, S., Kivelä, H., Kvarnström, C., Hartmann, H. & Dunsch, L. 2013, "Charged states in diphenylamino endcapped thiophenes with a 1,4-phenylene core: In situ electron spin resonance/ultraviolet-visible-near infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroelectrochemistry and quantum chemical study", Electrochimica Acta, vol 110, pp. 670-680 (  

Terzi, F., Pelliciari, J., Zanardi, C., Pigani, L., Viinikanoja, A., Lukkari, J. & Seeber, R. 2013, "Graphene-modified electrode. Determination of hydrogen peroxide at high concentrations", Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 405, no. 11, pp. 3579-3586.  

Riisiö, A., Lehtonen, A., Hänninen, M.M. & Sillanpää, R. 2013, "Synthesis, structure and catalytic properties of dinuclear MoVI complexes with ditopic diaminotetraphenols", European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, , no. 9, pp. 1499-1508.
Wagner, M., Kvarnström, C., Ivaska, A. & Bobacka, J. 2013, "Electrochemical properties of novel porous carbon based material synthesized from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons", Electrochimica Acta, vol. 105, pp. 384-393.  

Wang, N., Damlin, P., Esteban, B.M., Ääritalo, T., Kankare, J. & Kvarnström, C. 2013, "Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of copolyviologen films", Electrochimica Acta, vol. 90, pp. 171-178. ( 



Anugwom, I., Mäki-Arvela, P., Virtanen, P., Willför, S., Damlin, P., Hedenström, M. & Mikkola, J.-. 2012, "Treating birch wood with a switchable 1,8-diazabicyclo-[5.4.0]-undec-7-ene- glycerol carbonate ionic liquid", Holzforschung, vol. 66, no. 7, pp. 809-815.  

Hakala, J., Sillanpää, R. & Lehtonen, A. 2012, "Oxidomolybdenum(VI) complexes with aminoalcohol bis(phenolate) [O,N,O,O′] ligands: Synthesis and catalytic studies", Inorganic Chemistry Communications, vol. 21, pp. 21-23.  

Kaimainen, M., Ahvenainen, S., Kaariste, M., Järvenpää, E., Kaasalainen, M., Salomäki, M., Salonen, J. & Huopalahti, R. 2012, "Polar lipid fraction from oat (Avena sativa): Characterization and use as an o/w emulsifier", European Food Research and Technology, vol. 235, no. 3, pp. 507-515.  

Latonen, R.-., Österholm, A., Kvarnström, C. & Ivaska, A. 2012, "Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical study of polyazulene/BBL-PEO donor-acceptor composite layers", Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 116, no. 44, pp. 23793-23802.  

Österholm, A., Lindfors, T., Kauppila, J., Damlin, P. & Kvarnström, C. 2012, "Electrochemical incorporation of graphene oxide into conducting polymer films", Electrochimica Acta, vol. 83, pp. 463-470.  

Pesonen, M., Majumdar, H.S., Kauppila, J., Lukkari, J. & Österbacka, R. 2012, "Large-scale solution processable graphene-based thin film devices", Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, pp. 237.  

Riikonen, J., Salomäki, M., Van Wonderen, J., Kemell, M., Xu, W., Korhonen, O., Ritala, M., MacMillan, F., Salonen, J. & Lehto, V.-. 2012, "Surface chemistry, reactivity, and pore structure of porous silicon oxidized by various methods", Langmuir, vol. 28, no. 28, pp. 10573-10583.  

Salomäki, M., Peltonen, T. & Kankare, J. 2012, "Multilayer films by spraying on spinning surface - Best of both worlds", Thin Solid Films, vol. 520, no. 17, pp. 5550-5556.  

Valta, T., Puputti, E.-., Hyppänen, I., Kankare, J., Takalo, H. & Soukka, T. 2012, "Ligand enabling visible wavelength excitation of europium(III) for fluoroimmunoassays in aqueous micellar solutions", Analytical Chemistry, vol. 84, no. 18, pp. 7708-7712.  

Viinikanoja, A., Wang, Z., Kauppila, J. & Kvarnström, C. 2012, "Electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide and its in situ spectroelectrochemical characterization", Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 14, no. 40, pp. 14003-14009.  

Wichmann, O., Sillanpää, R. & Lehtonen, A. 2012, "Structural properties and applications of multidentate [O,N,O,X'] aminobisphenolate metal complexes", Coordination Chemistry Reviews, vol. 256, no. 3-4, pp. 371-392. 



Anugwom, I., Mäki-Arvela, P., Virtanen, P., Damlin, P., Sjöholm, R. & Mikkola, J.-. 2011, "Switchable Ionic liquids (SILs) based on glycerol and acid gases", RSC Advances, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 452-457.  

Gustafsson, H., Kvarnstrom̈, C. & Ivaska, A. 2011, "Conductive polymer bilayers - A spectroelectrochemical look at their doping reactions", Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, pp. 79.  

Hakala, J., Hänninen, M.M. & Lehtonen, A. 2011, "Imidotungsten(VI) complexes with chelating phenols as ROMP catalysts", Inorganic Chemistry Communications, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 1362-1364.  

Hänninen, M.M., Sillanpää, R., Kivelä, H. & Lehtonen, A. 2011, "Imidotungsten(vi) complexes with chelating amino and imino phenolates", Dalton Transactions, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 2868-2874. 

Hirvikorpi, T., Vähä-Nissi, M., Harlin, A., Salomäki, M., Areva, S., Korhonen, J.T. & Karppinen, M. 2011, "Enhanced water vapor barrier properties for biopolymer films by polyelectrolyte multilayer and atomic layer deposited Al 2O 3 double-coating", Applied Surface Science, vol. 257, no. 22, pp. 9451-9454.  

Hirvonen, S.-., Mänttäri, M., Wigren, V., Salomäki, M., Kvarnström, C. & Tenhu, H. 2011, "A novel method to prepare water dispersible poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline) (BBL) by partial substitution of chain ends with poly(ethylene oxide)", Colloid and Polymer Science, vol. 289, no. 9, pp. 1065-1072.  

Hyppänen, I., Hölsä, J., Kankare, J., Lastusaari, M., Pihlgren, L. & Soukka, T. 2011, "Up-Conversion luminescence of the NaRF 4-NaR'F 4 (R: Y, Yb, Er) core-shell nanomaterials", Journal of Fluorescence, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 963-969.  

Hyvärinen, S., Damlin, P., Gräsvik, J., Murzin, D.Y.U. & Mikkola, J.-. 2011, "Ionic liquid fractionation of woody biomass for fermentable monosaccharides", Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, vol. 45, no. 7-8, pp. 438-486.  

Österholm, A., Damlin, P., Kvarnström, C. & Ivaska, A. 2011, "Studying electronic transport in polyazulene-ionic liquid systems using infrared vibrational spectroscopy", Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 13, no. 23, pp. 11254-11263.  

Österholm, A., Kvarnström, C. & Ivaska, A. 2011, "Ionic liquids in electrosynthesis and characterization of a polyazulene-fullerene composite", Electrochimica Acta, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 1490-1497.  

Riuttamäki, T., Hyppänen, I., Kankare, J. & Soukka, T. 2011, "Decrease in luminescence lifetime indicating nonradiative energy transfer from upconverting phosphors to fluorescent acceptors in aqueous suspensions", Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 115, no. 36, pp. 17736-17742.  

Salmi, T., Damlin, P., Mikkola, J.-. & Kangas, M. 2011, "A chemical engineering approach to cellulose substitution kinetics", Chemical Engineering Transactions, vol. 24, pp. 151-156.  

Salmi, T., Damlin, P., Mikkola, J.-. & Kangas, M. 2011, "Modelling and experimental verification of cellulose substitution kinetics", Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 171-182.  

Terzi, F., Pasquali, L., Montecchi, M., Nannarone, S., Viinikanoja, A., Ääritalo, T., Salomäki, M., Lukkari, J., Doyle, B.P. & Seeber, R. 2011, "New insights on the interaction between thiophene derivatives and Au surfaces. the case of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene and the relevant polymer", Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 115, no. 36, pp. 17836-17844.  

Vuojola, J., Hyppänen, I., Nummela, M., Kankare, J. & Soukka, T. 2011, "Distance and temperature dependency in nonoverlapping and conventional Förster resonance energy-transfer", Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 115, no. 46, pp. 13685-13694.  

Wagner, M., Österholm, A., Hirvonen, S.-., Tenhu, H., Ivaska, A. & Kvarnström, C. 2011, "Characterization of water-dispersible n-type poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline) derivatives", Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, vol. 212, no. 15, pp. 1567-1574.  

Wagner, M., Yu, K., Kvarnström, C. & Ivaska, A. 2011, "Synthesis and characterization of electroactive films based on benzo(a)pyrene", Electrochimica Acta, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 3443-3446.  

Wichmann, O., Sopo, H., Lehtonen, A. & Sillanpää, R. 2011, "Oxidovanadium(V) complexes with aminoethanol bis(phenolate) [O,N,O,O′] ligands: Preparations, structures, N-dealkylation and condensation reactions", European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, , no. 8, pp. 1283-1291.  

Zanardi, C., Terzi, F., Zanfrognini, B., Pigani, L., Seeber, R., Lukkari, J. & Ääritalo, T. 2010, "Effective catalytic electrode system based on polyviologen and Au nanoparticles multilayer", Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 92-98.  

Zanfrognini, B., Zanardi, C., Terzi, F., Ääritalo, T., Viinikanoja, A., Lukkari, J. & Seeber, R. 2011, "Layer-by-layer deposition of a polythiophene/Au nanoparticles multilayer with effective electrochemical properties", Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, vol. 15, no. 11-12, pp. 2395-2400.




     Research topics     People    Dissertations    Publications    Collaboration


Institute of Materials Sciences in Dresden, IFW-Dresden, Germany
University of Szeged, Department Chemistry, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Szeged, Hungary 
Linzer Institut für organische Solarzellen (LIOS) Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Linz, Austria  
University of Modena e Reggio Emilia, Department of Chemistry, Modena, Italy
University of Bialystok, Institute of Chemistry, Hurtowa, Bialystok, Poland  
State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Engineering Laboratory for Modern Analytical Techniques, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences Changchun, China  
Freiburg Materials Research Center, University of  Freiburg, Germany
University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK  
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. 
Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Stockholm, Sweden

Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, Russia  
University of Tirana, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Tirana, Albania  
University of Reims Champahne-Ardenne, Reims, France

International conferences 

ICSM2014, June 30- July 5 2014, Turku