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Top-5 julkaisut / publications

Mattila, S. et al (2018): A dust-enshrouded tidal disruption event with a resolved radio jet in a galaxy merger – Science DOI: 10.1126/science.aao4669

Tidal disruption events (TDEs) are transient flares produced when a star is ripped apart by the gravitational field of a supermassive black hole (SMBH). We have observed a transient source in the western nucleus of the merging galaxy pair Arp 299 that radiated >1.5 × 1052 erg in the infrared and radio but was not luminous at optical or x-ray wavelengths. We interpret this as a TDE with much of its emission reradiated at infrared wavelengths by dust. Efficient reprocessing by dense gas and dust may explain the difference between theoretical predictions and observed luminosities of TDEs. The radio observations resolve an expanding and decelerating jet, probing the jet formation and evolution around a SMBH. (19.06.2018) Link to publication
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*Busch, P., Lahti, P.J., Pellonpää, J.-P., and Ylinen, K (2016): Quantum Measurement – Springer, ISBN: 978-3-319-43387-5

This is a book about the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics and its measurement theory. It contains a synopsis of what became of the Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics since von Neumann’s classic treatise with this title. Fundamental non-classical features of quantum mechanics—indeterminacy and incompatibility of observables, unavoidable measurement disturbance, entanglement, nonlocality—are explicated and analysed using the tools of operational quantum theory.

The book is divided into four parts: 1. Mathematics provides a systematic exposition of the Hilbert space and operator theoretic tools and relevant measure and integration theory leading to the Naimark and Stinespring dilation theorems; 2. Elements develops the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and measurement theory with a focus on the notion of approximate joint measurability; 3. Realisations offers in-depth studies of the fundamental observables of quantum mechanics and some of their measurement implementations; and 4. Foundations discusses a selection of foundational topics (quantum-classical contrast, Bell nonlocality, measurement limitations, measurement problem, operational axioms) from a measurement theoretic perspective.

The book is addressed to physicists, mathematicians and philosophers of physics with an interest in the mathematical and conceptual foundations of quantum physics, specifically from the perspective of measurement theory. (17.10.2016)Link to publication
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*Li-Yun Tian, Henrik Levämäki, *Matti Ropo, Kalevi Kokko, *Ágnes Nagy, and *Levente Vitos (2016): Exchange-Correlation Catastrophe in Cu-Au: A Challenge for Semilocal Density Functional Approximations – Physical Review Letters 117, 066401

Semilocal density functional approximations occupy the second rung of the Jacob’s ladder model and´are thus expected to have certain limits to their applicability. A recent study [Y. Zhang, G. Kresse, and C. Wolverton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 075502 (2014)] hypothesizes that the formation energy, being one of the key quantities in alloy theory, would be beyond the grasp of semilocal density functional theory (DFT). Here, we explore the physics of semilocal DFT formation energies and shed light on the connection between the accuracy of the formation energy and the ability of a semilocal approximation to produce accurate lattice constants. We demonstrate that semilocal functionals designed to perform well for alloy constituents can concomitantly solve the problem of alloy formation energies. (7.9.2016) Link to publication
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*Breuer, H.-P., Laine, E.-M., Piilo, J, and *Vacchini, B. (2016): Colloquium: Non-Markovian dynamics in open quantum systems – Reviews of Modern Physics 88, 021002

The dynamical behavior of open quantum systems plays a key role in many applications of quantum mechanics, examples ranging from fundamental problems, such as the environment-induced decay of quantum coherence and relaxation in many-body systems, to applications in condensed matter theory, quantum transport, quantum chemistry, and quantum information. In close analogy to a classical Markovian stochastic process, the interaction of an open quantum system with a noisy environment is often modeled phenomenologically by means of a dynamical semigroup with a corresponding time- independent generator in Lindblad form, which describes a memoryless dynamics of the open system typically leading to an irreversible loss of characteristic quantum features. However, in many applications open systems exhibit pronounced memory effects and a revival of genuine quantum properties such as quantum coherence, correlations, and entanglement. Here recent theoretical results on the rich non-Markovian quantum dynamics of open systems are discussed, paying particular attention to the rigorous mathematical definition, to the physical interpretation and classification, as well as to the quantification of quantum memory effects. The general theory is illustrated by a series of physical examples. The analysis reveals that memory effects of the open system dynamics reflect characteristic features of the environment which opens a new perspective for applications, namely, to exploit a small open system as a quantum probe signifying nontrivial features of the environment it is interacting with. This Colloquium further explores the various physical sources of non-Markovian quantum dynamics, such as structured environmental spectral densities, nonlocal correlations between environmental degrees of freedom, and correlations in the initial system-environment state, in addition to developing schemes for their local detection. Recent experiments addressing the detection, quantification, and control of non-Markovian quantum dynamics are also briefly discussed. (20.04.2016) Link to the publication
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*Uola, R., *Budroni, C.,*Gühne, O., and Pellonpää, J-P. (2015): One-to-One Mapping between Steering and Joint Measurability Problems – Physical Review Letters 115, 230402.

Quantum steering refers to the possibility for Alice to remotely steer Bob’s state by performing local measurements on her half of a bipartite system. Two necessary ingredients for steering are entanglement and incompatibility of Alice’s measurements. In particular, it is known that for the case of pure states of maximal Schmidt rank the problem of steerability for Bob’s assemblage is equivalent to the problem of joint measurability for Alice’s observables. We show that such an equivalence holds in general; namely, the steerability of any assemblage can always be formulated as a joint measurability problem, and vice versa. We use this connection to introduce steering inequalities from joint measurability criteria and develop quantifiers for the incompatibility of measurements. (03.12.2015) Link to the publication
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