in English
Biology +Bl

preIB Biology

Biology is a natural science, which studies the structures, functions and interdependencies in living nature from molecular and cell levels to the biosphere. As a science, biology is characterised by acquisition of information based on observation and experimentation. The life sciences are rapidly developing branches of knowledge, which are being broadly applied in society. Biology provides new knowledge about biodiversity and the promotion of sustainable development.

The purpose of biology instruction is to provide students with an understanding of the structure and development of a functional organic world, human beings as part of the organic world and the significance of human activity to the environment. Biology instruction at upper secondary school must also provide a foundation for understanding the opportunities of the life sciences to promote the well-being of humanity, other living organisms and living environments. Instruction will develop students’ scientific thinking, arouse their interest in the life sciences and encourage them to behave in an environmentally responsible manner so as to sustain natural diversity.

The objectives of instruction in biology are for students to

  • familiarise themselves with biological information acquisition and research methods and be able to critically assess biological information obtained from different sources;
  • command the key concepts of biology;
  • identify the characteristics of life and be able to structure the phenomena of life and the different organisational levels of biology from the molecular level to the biosphere;
  • learn to appreciate the diversity of organisms and understand the adaptation of living organisms to different environments;
  • understand the significance of genetic heritage and evolution in the development of living organisms;
  • know how to plan and implement a simple biological experiment and interpret its results;
  • know how to work in digital learning environment as well as in laboratory;
  • use ICT diversely to support biology learning;
  • use and apply the biological knowledge in everyday life;
  • be familiar with different applications of the life sciences, such as those used in biotechnology and medicine;
  • become aware of the necessity of sustainable development and understand their own responsibility for the future of ecosystems.

Compulsory course +BI (Life and evolution BI1)

During the course students become acquainted with requirements of life and key characteristics of life common for all living organisms. Students also become familiar with the scientific way of obtaining and describing the biological knowledge. The key aspect of the course is the evolution and understanding the significance of evolution.


The objectives of the course are for students to

  • gain experiences which deepen their interest in biology;
  • be familiar with the characteristics of and the fundamental conditions for life and know how the phenomena of life are studied;
  • understand the continuity, mechanisms and significance of evolution;
  • be able to analyse the current structure of the biosphere and interpret its development;
  • work experimentally and carry out small-scale research project with others.


Core contents

Biology as a science

  • properties of and fundamental conditions for life and different organisational levels of biology ;
  • biological sciences and research methods;
  • presentation of biological data with models

The cell as a basic unit of life

  • the origins of life;
  • cell structure and energy metabolism;
  • DNA and gene expression

Life cycle of an organism

  • sexual and asexual reproduction;
  • biological diversity;
  • growth, development and death


  • natural selection and adaptation;
  • the origins and extinction of species;
  • phylogenetic tree of life


Assessment in biology will focus on students’ abilities to master and use key biological concepts and to apply biological knowledge. Assessment will pay attention to students’ understanding of the laws of natural science and causal relationships, insight into the significance of interdependencies and perception of extensive wholes. Skills assessment will place emphasis on students’ aptitude for scientific work, team behaviour and their ability to use different sources for the acquisition of biological information and to assess information critically. Proven interest in different areas of biology may also be taken into account as part of assessment.

Student can demonstrate the biology knowledge and skills in

  • written assignments;
  • oral assessments in various interactive situations;
  • experimental work;
  • own or collaborative biological thesis or project report