Progress in medicine
Systematic breeding of wild mice and rats that started in the early 1900s in a few research centers in the United States and Europe led to the spread of their descendants to other research facilities around the world.
Medical advances in the 20th century:
  • the 1920s – insulin treatment for diabetes
  • the 1930s – surgical anesthesia, diphtheria vaccine
  • the 1940s – broad-spectrum antibiotics, pertussis vaccine, cardiopulmonary bypass pump (called also pump oxygenator or heart-lung machine)
  • the 1950s – kidney transplantation, artificial heart valves and pacemakers, polio vaccine, drugs regulating blood pressure
  • the 1960s – corneal transplants, measles vaccine, heart bypass surgery, antipsychotic drugs
  • the 1970s – drugs for stomach ulcers, asthma, treatment for leukemia
  • the 1980s – drugs blocking draft rejection, computed tomography in diagnostic, development in the care of premature infants, antiviral drugs, beginning of the gene technology development
  • the 1990s – molecular biology, gene therapy, development of highly specific drugs, bioactive materials, development of new imaging techniques
  • the 2000s – completion of human gene map, stem cells and nanotechnology terapies