Rami Vainio profile picture
Professor, Space Research Laboratory


+358 29 450 4294
+358 50 511 4972
Vesilinnantie 5

Areas of expertise

Space physics
solar physics


I am a professor of space physics at the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Finland, and the head of Space Research Laboratory (SRL), which performs experimental, theoretical and computational research on high-energy phenomena in near-Earth space. SRL continuously collaborates with several research groups in Finland and abroad and most of our research projects are joint efforts with a large number of researchers working on the same topics. SRL develops instrumentation for detecting energetic charged particles and numerical simulation codes to understand the propagation of charged particles through electromagnetic fields in space.


Interest areas: Space Physics, Plasma Physics, Astrophysics

Responsibilities: In charge of the Space Physics curriculum in the University of Turku.
Lecturing courses on Mathematical Methods in Physics II (BSc, 5 cp); Space Physics (BSc, 5 cp); Hydrodynamics and Hydromagnetics (MSc, 8 cp); Plasma Astrophysics (MSc, 8cp).


Solar energetic particles (SEPs). The Sun produces very energetic particles during solar eruptions, i.e., solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). These outburst of energetic particles are called SEP events or solar particle events. Because they can penetrate thick layers of material, SEPs constitute a severe radiation risk to humans and electronics in space. Together with my research group and collaborators, I study the acceleration of SEPs close to the Sun and their transport in the interplanetary medium to near-Earth space and beyond, as well as the near-Earth radiation environment generated by SEPs.

Shock waves are transitions from supersonic to subsonic flow associated with compression (i.e., increase of density) and dissipation (i.e., conversion of ordered kinetic energy of the flow to random thermal energy). In ordinary gases, shocks have thicknesses of the order of the collisional mean free path of the molecular motion. In dilute space plasmas, binary collisions are too infrequent to account for the dissipation and re-distribution of energy. Instead, collective processes involving fluctuating electromagnetic fields take the role of collisions. Such shocks are termed collisionless shocks. In the absence of binary collisions, collisionless shocks generate energetic particle populations (such as SEPs) and together with my research group and collaborators, I focus on understanding this acceleration process in detail.


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Global Energetics of Solar Powerful Events on 2017 September 6 (2023)

Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics
Li D, Warmuth A, Wang JC, Zhao HS, Lu L, Zhang QM, Dresing N, Vainio R, Palmroos C, Paassilta M, Fedeli A, Dominique M
(Vertaisarvioitu alkuperäisartikkeli tai data-artikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä (A1))

The Effect of the Ambient Solar Wind Medium on a CME-driven Shock and the Associated Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Event (2023)

Astrophysical Journal
Wijsen Nicolas, Lario David, Sánchez-Cano Beatriz, Jebaraj Immanuel C., Dresing Nina, Richardson Ian G., Aran Angels, Kouloumvakos Athanasios, Ding Zheyi, Niemelä Antonio, Palmerio Erika, Carcaboso Fernando, Vainio Rami, Afanasiev Alexandr, Pinto Marco, Pacheco Daniel, Poedts Stefaan, Heyner Daniel
(Vertaisarvioitu alkuperäisartikkeli tai data-artikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä (A1))

Properties of Cosmic-Ray Sulfur and Determination of the Composition of Primary Cosmic-Ray Carbon, Neon, Magnesium, and Sulfur: Ten-Year Results from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (2023)

Physical Review Letters
Aguilar M, Cavasonza LA, Alpat B, Ambrosi G, Arruda L, Attig N, Bagwell C, Barao F, Barrin L, Bartoloni A, Basegmez-du Pree S, Battiston R, Belyaev N, Berdugo J, Bertucci B, Bindi V, Bollweg K, Bolster J, Borchiellini M, Borgia B, Boschini MJ, Bourquin M, Bueno EF, Burger J, Burger WJ, Cai XD, Capell M, Casaus J, Castellini G, Cervelli F, Chang YH, Chen GM, Chen GR, Chen H, Chen HS, Chen Y, Cheng L, Chou HY, Chouridou S, Choutko V, Chung CH, Clark C, Coignet G, Consolandi C, Contin A, Corti C, Cui Z, Dadzie K, Dass A, Delgado C, Della Torre S, Demirkoz MB, Derome L, Di Falco S, Di Felice V, Diaz C, Dimiccoli F, von Doetinchem P, Dong F, Donnini F, Duranti M, Egorov A, Eline A, Faldi F, Feng J, Fiandrini E, Fisher P, Formato V, Gamez C, Garcia-Lopez RJ, Gargiulo C, Gast H, Gervasi M, Giovacchini F, Gomez-Coral DM, Gong J, Goy C, Grabski V, Grandi D, Graziani M, Guracho AN, Haino S, Han KC, Hashmani RK, He ZH, Heber B, Hsieh TH, Hu JY, Huang BW, Incagli M, Jang WY, Jia Y, Jinchi H, Karagoz G, Khiali B, Kim GN, Kirn T, Kounina O, Kounine A, Koutsenko V, Krasnopevtsev D, Kuhlman A, Kulemzin A, La Vacca G, Laudi E, Laurenti G, LaVecchia G, Lazzizzera I, Lee HT, Lee SC, Li HL, Li JQ, Li M, Li M, Li Q, Li Q, Li QY, Li S, Li SL, Li JH, Li ZH, Liang J, Liang MJ, Lin CH, Lippert T, Liu JH, Lu SQ, Lu YS, Luebelsmeyer K, Luo JZ, Luo SD, Luo X, Machate F, Mana C, Marin J, Marquardt J, Martin T, Martinez G, Masi N, Maurin D, Medvedeva T, Menchaca-Rocha A, Meng Q, Mikhailov VV, Molero M, Mott P, Mussolin L, Negrete J, Nikonov N, Nozzoli F, Ocampo-Peleteiro J, Oliva A, Orcinha M, Ottupara MA, Palermo M, Palmonari F, Paniccia M, Pashnin A, Pauluzzi M, Pensotti S, Plyaskin V, Poluianov S, Qin X, Qu ZY, Quadrani L, Rancoita PG, Rapin D, Conde AR, Robyn E, Romaneehsen L, Rozhkov A, Rozza D, Sagdeev R, Schael S, von Dratzig AS, Schwering G, Seo ES, Shan BS, Siedenburg T, Song JW, Song XJ, Sonnabend R, Strigari L, Su T, Sun Q, Sun ZT, Tacconi M, Tang XW, Tang ZC, Tian J, Tian Y, Ting SCC, Urban T, Usoskin I, Vagelli V, Vainio R, Valencia-Otero M, Valente E, Valtonen E, Acosta MV, Vecchi M, Velasco M, Vialle JP, Wang CX, Wang L, Wang LQ, Wang NH, Wang QL, Wang S, Wang X, Wang Y, Wang ZM, Wei J, Weng ZL, Wu H, Wu Y, Xiao JN, Xiong RQ, Xiong XZ, Xu W, Yan Q, Yang HT, Yang Y, Yashin II, Yelland A, Yi H, You YH, Yu YM, Yu ZQ, Zannoni M, Zhang C, Zhang F, Zhang FZ, Zhang J, Zhang JH, Zhang Z, Zhao F, Zheng C, Zheng ZM, Zhuang HL, Zhukov V, Zichichi A, Zuccon P
(Vertaisarvioitu alkuperäisartikkeli tai data-artikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä (A1))

The 17 April 2021 widespread solar energetic particle event (2023)

Astronomy and Astrophysics
Dresing N, Rodriguez-Garcia L, Jebaraj IC, Warmuth A, Wallace S, Balmaceda L, Podladchikova T, Strauss RD, Kouloumvakos A, Palmroos C, Krupar V, Gieseler J, Xu Z, Mitchell JG, Cohen CMS, de Nolfo GA, Palmerio E, Carcaboso F, Kilpua EKJ, Trotta D, Auster U, Asvestari E, da Silva D, Droge W, Getachew T, Gomez-Herrero R, Grande M, Heyner D, Holmstrom M, Huovelin J, Kartavykh Y, Laurenza M, Lee CO, Mason G, Maksimovic M, Mieth J, Murakami G, Oleynik P, Pinto M, Pulupa M, Richter I, Rodriguez-Pacheco J, Sanchez-Cano B, Schuller F, Ueno H, Vainio R, Vecchio A, Veronig AM, Wijsen N
(Vertaisarvioitu alkuperäisartikkeli tai data-artikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä (A1))