The discipline of philosophy approaches the fundamental questions of societal activity, culture and special sciences from a critical standpoint. Philosophy plays a visible part in the research on institutional design and social mechanisms, one of the areas of strength of the University of Turku.

The teaching of philosophy spans several faculties of the University of Turku. This is often research-based teaching, with the main research lines being bioethics, metaphysics and epistemology, history of philosophy, and philosophy of political and social sciences.

In the past three QS World University Rankings, the discipline has been ranked to places 280-300 among the philosophy programs worldwide.
Since the beginning of 2014, philosophy section of the department acts as the national representative in the international network of UNESCO Chair in Bioethics and Human Rights.