Research and Publications of Pan-European Institute

The Pan-European Institute (PEI) specialises in international business, investments and socio-economic development in the Baltic Sea region. PEI implements and coordinates research projects related to the economic development of Europe and its neighbouring countries.

The Pan-European Institute's research focuses on the following three topics:
Geo-economics and Security

The global development of political relations, tensions and structures has direct effects on trade and the daily operations of various industries and individual enterprises. PEI observes and studies these security concerns, economic sanctions and political risks affecting international business. 


Social media & societal stability in extraordinary circumstances (2023-2024), funded by the Scientific Advisory Board for Defence (MATINE), investigates how social media could be utilized in foreseeing the developments in Finland’s security environment.


Liuhto, Kari (2023) A View from Finland: Finland’s Road to NATO, In The Future of European Security: Belarus in NATO, Ed. by Andrei Sannikov, European Belarus Foundation, Warsaw. 

Liuhto, Kari (2021) Natural Gas in the EU in the Twenty-First Century: A Special Emphasis on LNG, In The Future of Energy Consumption, Security and Natural Gas: LNG in the Baltic Sea region, Ed. by Kari Liuhto, Palgrave Macmillan, London.


Hanna Mäkinen

Trade Policy and Business Policy Dialogue

Global megatrends such as multi-polarisation, digitalisation and the fight against climate change have created synergies and conflicting interests worldwide. There’s a need for economic reform to reshape existing institutions and policies in response to the new reality. Our study focuses on the effects of these wide-ranging changes in institutional development and what role different actors play in this ongoing change.


KAPPAS - Trade policy experts and know-how to Finland, 11/2019-12/2023, funded by TT-säätiö


Karhu, Anna – Haaja, Eini (2022) Lessons from Trade Policy Research. In: Global Trade and Trade Governance During De-Globalization: Transforming Trade Policy for Not-So-United World, Eds. Anna Karhu and Eini Haaja, 3–18, Palgrave Macmillan: Cham, Switzerland.

Mäkinen, H. (2022) Sanctions against Russia, their effectiveness and impacts on Finland. BSR Policy Briefing 11.


Anna Karhu

Competitiveness and Development of International Business

Due to the rapid and highly complex changes in the global business environment, companies in different industries have developed their skills and processes both at the organizational level and collectively at the industry level. Especially in the maritime transport sector, PEI has coordinated several international projects that have explored ways to increase companies' competitiveness, innovation, digitalization, eco-efficiency and sustainability in different business networks.


Haaja, Eini – Karhu, Anna – Paavilainen-Mäntymäki, Eriikka (forthcoming) Surviving the jungle or driving the change: International entrepreneurs as agents in institutional change. In: A Research Agenda for International Entrepreneurship. Eds. Christian Felzensztein and Sascha Fuerst, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.

Liuhto, Kari (2020) The Impact of the Great Lockdown on the Future of the Global Economy and the International Business, In COVID-19 and International Business: Change of Era, Ed. by Marin Marinov and Svetla Trifonova Marinova, Routledge, London and New York.


Eini Haaja