Research at Psychology

The discipline of psychology has a longstanding tradition of research in cognitive processes (particularly perception, language, active memory) and learning (Centre for Learning Research). Their phenomena are studied on both the psychological and the neurological level. Another key focal point is research on the formation of peer relationships, especially on bullying and its prevention (the KiVa School project). The third field the discipline excels in is the research of consciousness and its various states like dreams. Researchers at the discipline also study the developmental psychology of children and youths (FinnBrain).


The discipline of psychology houses the Centre for Learning Research, a joint venture of the faculty of education and the discipline of psychology. A multiprofessional teaching clinic is run in cooperation with the discipline of social work.

The main focal points of research are studying bullying at school and its prevention (the KiVa International project), research on cognition and various states of consciousness (like dreams), studying the neural basis of various cognitive processes, and research on reading and reading comprehension (including the psychology of language). The discipline also hosts research on the early socioemotional development of children and behaviour in traffic.

The discipline of psychology coordinates two Strategic Research Council projects: Fostering Finnish Science Capital (FINSCI) and Nudging for climate: Using behavioral sciences for steering communities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fortify carbon sinks (CLIMATE-NUDGE).

Topics of expertise

The discipline's researchers have a wide range of expertise on a number of topics in the field of psychology.

​Aggressiveness Claire Garandeau
Attention Johanna Kaakinen, Mika Koivisto
Awareness Antti Revonsuo, Mika Koivisto
Behavioural genetics Patrick Jern
Bullying Christina Salmivalli, Claire Garandeau
Bullying, schools Antti Kärnä, Virpi Pöyhönen, Silja Saarento,  Miia Sainio
Bullying, schools, interventions Antti Kärnä, Silja Saarento
Bullying, schools and work Ari Kaukiainen
Cognitive psychotherapy Armi Hakanen
Cognitive processes Pekka Niemi
Consciousness Mika Koivisto, Antti Revonsuo, Nils Sandman
Consciousness, altered states Antti Revonsuo, Katja Valli
Consciousness research Niina Salminen-Vaparanta, Jarno Tuominen, Katja Valli
Couple relationships Hannele Räihä
Depression, prepartum and postpartum Hannele Räihä 
Dreams Antti Revonsuo
Driver behaviour Sirkku Laapotti
Driver behaviour, hierarchical model Esko Keskinen
Drivers, training Esko Keskinen, Sirkku Laapotti
Drivers, qualifications Esko Keskinen
Early interaction Hannele Räihä
Electromagnetic fields Heikki Hämäläinen
Emotions in learning Johanna Kaakinen, Tuomo Häikiö, Henri Olkoniemi
Enumeration Henry Railo
Epidemiology Nils Sandman
ERP Mika Koivisto
Evolutionary psychology Patrick Jern,   Katja Valli
Executive functioning Heikki Hämäläinen
Family Hannele Räihä
GDE model (Goals for Driver Education) Esko Keskinen
Insomnia Paula Salo
Intervention programmes, evaluation studies of Antti Kärnä
Interventions Christina Salmivalli
Language, psychology of Jukka Hyönä
Language, comprehension (esp. texts) Johanna Kaakinen
Learning difficulties and social competence Ari Kaukiainen
Literacy, development of Elisa Poskiparta
Memory Johanna Kaakinen
Mental health consultation and collaboration Annarilla Ahtola
Mind and brain Antti Revonsuo
Neglect Heikki Hämäläinen
Neurocognitive plasticity Heikki Hämäläinen
Nightmares Nils Sandman
Nudging Paula Salo, Nils Sandman, Jarno Tuominen
Parenthood Hannele Räihä
Peer relationships Virpi Pöyhönen, Christina Salmivalli
Preterm birth Sari Ahlqvist-Björkroth Riikka KorjaAnnika LindSusanna Salomäki
Psychosocial factors Paula Salo
Reading difficulties, risk factors and rehabilitation Elisa Poskiparta
Reading, eye movements Jukka Hyönä, Tuomo Häikiö 
Reading, psychology of Pekka Niemi
Risk behaviour Sirkku Laapotti
Safety research Sirkku Laapotti
School psychology Annarilla Ahtola 
School transition practices Annarilla Ahtola
School transitions Annarilla Ahtola
School readiness Annarilla Ahtola
Science capital  Johanna Kaakinen, Tuomo Häikiö, Henri Olkoniemi
Sexual dysfunctions Patrick Jern
Sexuality Patrick Jern
Sleep Paula Salo, Nils Sandman
Sleep research Antti Revonsuo, Jarno Tuominen , Katja Valli
Social development Christina Salmivalli
Social epidemiology Paula Salo
Social simulation theory Jarno Tuominen
Student welfare Annarilla Ahtola
Tactile perception Heikki Hämäläinen
Time consciousness Jarno Tuominen
University pedagogics Katja Valli
Visual attention Jukka Hyönä, Henry Railo
Visual consciousness Henry Railo
Visual perception Mika Koivisto
Work incapacity Paula Salo
Working memory Jukka Hyönä

Doctoral Theses

(* = article thesis)

SAINIO, MIIA *Same- and Other-Sex Victimization: Risk Factors, Consequences, and Protection by Peers, 2013.

PÖYHÖNEN, VIRPI *Defending behavior in bullying situations. 2013

RAILO, HENRY *Neural mechanisms underlying conscious and unconscious vision – Evidence from event-related potentials and transcranial magnetic stimulation, 2013

LAAKSO, VIRPI *Relieved after doctor’s consultation? Primary health care patients’ complaint-related worries, 2013.

AHTOLA, ANNARILLA *Proactive and Preventive Student Welfare Activities in Finnish Preschool and Elementary School: Handling of Transition to Formal Schooling and a National Anti-Bullying Program as Examples, 2012.

KÄRNÄ, ANTTI *Effectiveness of the KiVa Antibullying Program. 2012

MUNCK, PETRIINA *Cognitive development of very low birth weight children from infancy to pre-school age, 2012.

KUUSKORPI, TAINA Psykologisten testien käyttö Suomessa. 2012

TAKIO, FIIA *“It’s all right” – Multimodal rightward spatial bias modified by age and praxis, 2012.

LUUKKAINENMARKKULA, RIITTA *”Dov’é la sinistra?” – Hemispatial Neglect in Stroke, 2012.

HÄIKIÖ, TUOMO *Reading Development During Elementary School Years: Evidence from Eye Movements. 2011.

MALMBERG, MIRJA Vanhemman sisaruksen kokemus äidin ja uuden vauvan yhdessäolosta, 2010.

MYNTTINEN, SAMI *Finnish novice drivers’ competences – compared to the Swedish, Dutch and Austrian novices, 2010.

PYYKKÖNEN, PIRITA *The importance of semantics: Visual world studies on drawing inferences and resolving anaphors, 2009.

LEPPÄNEN, PIA *Behavioral Responses in Mice Selectively Bred for High and Low Lewels of Open-field Thigmotaxis, 2009.

KWON, MYOUNG SOO *Detection of GSM mobile phone electromagnetic field: behavioral and neurophysiological measurements, 2009.

FINNILÄ-TUOHIMAA, KATARINA *Expertise and decision making among clinicians in investigations of alleged child sexual abuse, 2009.

VALLI, KATJA *Threat Simulation – The Function of Dreaming? 2008

PEETS, KÄTLIN *Social Cognition and Behavior in Relationship Context. 2008

ALHOLA, PAULA *Cognitive performance after menopause: The effects of mone therapy and sleep deprivation, 2007.

RENVALL, KATI *Contextual Priming in the Treatment of Anomia. 2006

OJANEN, TIINA *From skill to Will. The Influence of Social Goals and Schemas on Social Adjustment in Early Adolescence, 2006.

NUMMENMAA, LAURI *Orienting of Social Attention. 2006

SALMI, SATU *"Seen a cop lately?" Finnsh citizens' perceptions of the police. 2006.

KIVIJÄRVI, MARJA *A contented baby has a sensitive mother. The Construct and Determinants of Maternal Sensitivity Behaviour, and its
Association with Infant Temperament and Behaviour in Early Interaction, 2005.

ANGLÉ, SUSANNA *Poor eating in young children and body dissatisfaction in prepubertal girls and boys. Findings from participants in a prospective atherosclerosis prevention trial for children. The STRIP Project. 2005.

DUFVA, MIA *Focus on Beginning Foreign Language Learning. On Predicting and Supporting English Literacy Learning in Finnish Primary School. 2004.

KAAKINEN, JOHANNA *Perspective Effects on Text Comprhension: Evidence from Recall, Eyetracking and Think-Alouds, 2004.

OKSAMA, LAURI Dynamic Attention to Multiple Moving Objects. 2004

KALLIO, SAKARI *Hypnosis and Altered State of Consciousness; Empirical and Theoretical Considerations, 2003.

LAAPOTTI, SIRKKU *What are Young Female Drivers Made of? Differences in attitudes, exposure, offences and accidents
between young female and male drivers. 2003.

MARTYNOVA, OLGA *Speech Discrimination in Newborns as Revealed by Mismatch Negativity (MMN). 2003

LAATU, SARI *Semantic memory deficits in Alzheimer´s disease, Parkinson´s disease and multiple sclerosis. Impairments in coscious
understanding of concept meanings and visual object recognition. 2003.

KAUKIAINEN, ARI *Social Intelligence as a Prerequisite of Indirect Aggression. Some manifestations and concomitants of covert forms of
aggression. 2003.

POSKIPARTA, ELISA *Remediation of reading difficulties in grades 1 and 2. Are cognitive deficits only part of the story? 2003.

MÄKI, HANNA *Elements of Spelling and Composition. Studies on Predicting and Supporting Writing Skills in Primary Grades, 2002.

SILVÉN, MAARIT *”Something from almost nothing”. Early Interaction and Language Acquisition in Finnish Children. Cascading Effects from
First Words to Reading. 2002.

BACKMAN, MARTIN Driving Skill: The Role of Car Control Behavior. 2001.

PORTIN, RAIJA *Cognitive functioning in midlife. Assessment by Mild Deterioration Battery and CogniSpeed. 2000.

BERTRAM, RAYMOND *Morphology in the mind. Word processing in Finnish and Dutch. 2000

WARIS, KYÖSTI *Mental well-being in work. A sign of a healthy organisation and a necessary precondition of the organisation development. 1999.

KOIVISTO, MIKA *Semantic Priming in the Cerebral Hemispheres. Brain Asymmetries in Automatic, Expectancy-based, and Postlexical
Processing. 1999.

KONTTILA, ARJA Suomalainen WISC-R. Poikittais- ja pitkittäistutkimus psykometrisen älykkyyden rakenteesta ja prosesseista. 1999.

TARMI-MATTSSON, MINNA Family-based dietary intervention and its psychological effects on participants in a project of preventive cardiology (The STRIP
baby Project). 1998.

HATAKKA, MIKA Novice Drivers´ Risk - and Self-Evaluations - Use of Questionnaires in Traffic Psychological Research. Method Development, General Trends in Four Sample Materials, and Connections with Behaviour. 1998.

HÄMÄLÄINEN, PÄIVI *The Chracteristics and Evolution of Incipient Cognitive Decline in Multiple Sclerosis. 1998.

RÄIHÄ, HANNELE *Family Interaction and Infant´s Crying. Prospective Studies of Families with Colicky and Non-colicky Infants.
Turun yliopiston julkaisuja, sarja B, osa 226, 1998.

SALMIVALLI, CHRISTINA *Not Only Bullies and Victims. Participation in Harassment in School Classes: Some Social and Personality Factors.
Turun yliopiston julkaisuja, sarja B, osa 225, 1998.

HANNUS, MATTI Oppikirjan kuvitus - koriste vai ymmärtämisen apu. Turun yliopiston julkaisuja, sarja C, osa 122, 1996.

REVONSUO, ANTTI *On the nature of consciousness; Theoretical and Empirical Explorations. Turun yliopiston julkaisuja, sarja B, osa 209, 1995.

RAIVOLA, PETRI Ympäristöuhan sosiaalinen representaatio. Rikka rokassa vai viimeinen pisara? Turun yliopisto, Psykologian tutkimuksia 98, 1995.

HUHTANIEMI, PÄIVI The sense of life control and thoughts of early retirement. Turun yliopiston julkaisuja, sarja B, osa 210, 1995.

TIURANIEMI, JUHANI Työn, työyhteisön ja esimiestoiminnan arviointi. Arviointien keskinäiset yhteydet kahdessa julkisen sektorin organisaatiossa.
Turun yliopiston julkaisuja, sarja C, osa 104, 1994.

HYÖNÄ, JUKKA *Eye movements during reading and discourse processing. University of Turku, Psychological research reports 65, 1993.

TALO, SEIJA Psychological assessment of functioning in chronic low back pain patients. Model application in comprehensive rehabilitation.
Publications of the Social Insurance Institution, ML: 116, 1992.

VAURAS, MARJA Text Learning Strategies in School-aged Students. Suomalaisen tiedeakatemian julkaisuja, sarja B, osa 59, 1991.

KESKINEN, SOILI Päiväkotihenkilöstön sisäisten mallien yhteys työviihtyvyyteen, työn rasittavuuteen ja ammatti-identiteettiin.
Turun yliopiston julkaisuja, sarja C, osa 80, 1990.

LAINE, MATTI On the mechanism of verbal adynamia. A neuropsychological study. Turun yliopiston julkaisuja, sarja B, osa 185, 1989.

NIEMI, PÄIVI Adolescents and the family: images and experiences of family life in Finland. Turun yliopiston julkaisuja, sarja B, osa 181, 1988.

KORHONEN, TAPIO Learning Disabilities in Children. An empirical subgrouping and follow-up. Turun yliopiston julkaisuja, sarja B, osa 178, 1988.

SAARILUOMA, PERTTI *Coding problem spaces in chess. Societas Scientiarum Fennica, Commentationes Scientiarum Socialium 23, 1984.

KESKINEN, ESKO Inhimillinen tekijä liikenteessä. Turun yliopisto, Psykologian tutkimuksia 59, 1982.

NIEMI, PEKKA *Visual and auditory stimulus intensity, reaction time, and cognitive processes. University of Turku, Psychological Research Reports 54, 1981.

SNELLMAN, LEILA Ennustaminen ja selittäminen sosiaalisena päättelyprosessina. Kahden lapsen välisen vuorovaikutuksen ennustaminen ja selittäminen
agentti- ja targetvihjeiden perusteella. Turun yliopiston julkaisuja, sarja C, osa 31, 1981.

SAARI, SALLI Mielenterveyden muutoksen ennustaminen ja selittäminen kolmen ensimmäisen opiskeluvuoden aikana. Ylioppilaiden terveydenhoitosäätiön tutkimuksia ja selvityksiä 10, 1981, Helsinki.

OJALA, MIKKO Muististrategioiden kehittymisestä ja opettamisesta. Muistin kehityspsykologinen tutkimus peruskoulun ensimmäisen,
kolmannen ja kuudennen luokan oppilailla. Turun yliopisto, psykologian tutkimuksia 30, 1978.

RAUSTE, MAIJALIISA The image of man among finnish girls and boys an the basis of material from Helsinki and North Karelia 1975. Reports from the department of psychology,
University of Turku 41, 1975.

WUORIO, URPO The effect of Rh-immunization on the psychological development of the child. Turun yliopiston julkaisuja, sarja B, osa 132, 1974

STROMNES, FRODE Associations of adresses: A study in serial verbal learning. Private edition, 1971.

KOLEHMAINEN, KYÖSTI Studies on apparent properties of inspection objects as determiners of figural after-effects. Turun yliopiston julkaisuja, sarja B, osa 119, 1970.

MIKKONEN, VALDE On the retention of perceptual quantities. Societas Scientiarum Fennica, Commentationes Humanarum Litterarum, Vol. 44, Nr. 3, 1969.

LAGERSPETZ, KIRSTI Studies on the aggressive behaviour mice. Suomalaisen tiedeakatemian toimituksia, sarja B, nide 131, 1964.

KIVILUOTO, HILLEVI Oppikoulumenestysprognoosin kontrollista. Oppikoulumenestysprognoosin kontrollista II. Turun yliopiston julkaisuja, sarja B, osa 59, 1956.

Psykologian laboratoriossa väitelleet

HEIKKINEN, VÄINÖ Arbeitskurvenversuche mit 9-13 jährigen Volkshulern. Turun yliopiston julkaisuja B XLI. 1952.

IHALAINEN, VILHO JUHANI Maalaisväestön uskonnollinen elämä. Kuopio: Pellervo 1947

SALOMAA, SIRKKA Ikäkausien vaihtelu. Tutkimus Helsingin yliopistossa vv. 1828-1878 toimineiden opettajien elämänkuluista.
Porvoo: WSOY. 1945

HINKKANEN, ALEKSANTERI Koulumenestys ja elämäura. Tutkimus Turun suomalaisen klassillisen lyseon oppilaista vv. 1888-1917. Turku

TUOMPO, AARRE Experimentelle und sozialpsychologische Untersuchungen bei der Landjugend. 1942

The Consciousness Research Group

What is consciousness?

The conscious mind is life as we experience it: we see the world, feel our emotions and think our thoughts thanks to consciousness. Without consciousness there is “nobody home”; we would be vacant human bodies wandering around like zombies or robots, not conscious beings. Yet, for 21st century science and philosophy, one of the greatest challenges is to explain what consciousness really is. Consciousness is currently one of the hottest topics in psychological science, neuroscience, and philosophy. How does consciousness, our subjective self or “soul”, arise from the activities of the brain? Will science ever be able to truly explain the relationship between our subjective conscious experiences and the objective neural activities going on in the brain? 

The Consciousness Research Group

At the University of Turku, a growing group of researchers has focused on consciousness ever since the 1990's. The major lines of research in the CRG include (1) the philosophical concepts and theories of consciousness and the theoretical development of the science of consciousness (Revonsuo 2006, 2010, 2015), (2) the cognitive and neural mechanisms of visual consciousness (Koivisto & Revonsuo 2010, Koivisto & Grassini 2016), (3) the description and explanation of altered states of consciousness, in particular dreaming, sleep, and nightmares (Revonsuo 2000, Revonsuo & Valli 2009, Revonsuo, Tuominen & Valli 2016; Sandman et al. 2016) and hypnosis (Kallio & Revonsuo 2003, Kallio et al. 2011). In collaboration with The Anesthesia Mechanisms group of Associate Professor Harry Scheinin we are also studying the brain mechanisms of general anesthesia, as a model system for the state shift between consciousness and unconsciousness (Långsjö, Revonsuo & Scheinin 2014; Långsjö et al. 2012).

The Consciousness Research Group covers a wide range of multidisciplinary research on consciousness: from philosophical and theoretical questions to empirical cognitive and neuroscientific research, and from state-​​​​level modulation of consciousness by sleep, anesthetics and hypnosis to detailed measurements of the contents, mechanisms and functions of conscious subjective experience.

We have three intertwined lines of research: Philosophy of consciousness, Visual consciousness, and Altered states of consciousness. Together, we aim at novel breakthroughs in the philosophy, theo​ry, methodology, and empirical findings on the relationship between consciousness and the brain, leading to progress in the explanation of the nature of consciousness and a better understanding of the place of human consciousness in the physical world.

Lines of research

Philosophy and theory of consciousness

In this line of research, Prof. Antti Revonsuo has been developing a theoretical and philosophical view about consciousness called Biological Realism. This theory defines consciousness as a higher level of neurophysiological organization in the brain and characterizes phenomenal consciousness as a unified, subjective “world-simulation”, produced by the brain during wakefulness and, importantly, also during dreaming. Metaphysically, Biological Realism is a variety of emergent materialism (as a mind-body theory) and indirect, representative realism (as a theory of perception). Biological Realism has been formulated, discussed, and compared to other philosophical and theoretical approaches especially in the articles and books listed below:

  • Revonsuo A (2006) Inner Presence. Consciousness as a Biological Phenomenon. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (First Hardback Edition, 473 pp. 2006;First Paperback Edition, 473 pp, 2009.) 
  • Revonsuo A. (2010) Consciousness, The Science of Subjectivity. London: Psychology Press, (Hardback and Paperback editions, 325 pp. Translated editions in Russian (2013) and Turkish (2016).
  • Revonsuo A (2017) Foundations of Consciousness. London: Routledge. (in press)
  • Revonsuo A & Kamppinen M. (Eds.) (1994) Consciousness in Philosophy and Cognitive Neuroscience. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (300 pp.)

 Book Chapters:

  • Revonsuo A (forthcoming) Biological Naturalism and Biological Realism. In: Gennaro R (Ed.) The Routledge Companion to Consciousness.
  • Revonsuo A (2000) Prospects for a Scientific Research Program on Consciousness. In: Metzinger T (Ed.) Neural Correlates of Consciousness, 57-75. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Revonsuo A, Tuominen J, & Valli K (2016a) The Avatars in the Machine: Dreaming as a Simulation of Social Reality. In: Metzinger T & Windt J (Eds.) Open MIND: Philosophy and the Mind Sciences in the 21st Century, Vol. 2, pp. 1295-1322. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Revonsuo A, Tuominen J, & Valli K (2016b) The Simulation Theories of Dreaming: How to Make Theoretical Progress in Dream Science. In: Metzinger T & Windt J (Eds.) Open MIND: Philosophy and the Mind Sciences in the 21st Century, Vol. 2, pp. 1341-1348. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Journal Articles

  • Revonsuo A (2015) Hard to See the Problem? Journal of Consciousness Studies 22, 3-4:52-67.
  • Revonsuo A (1999) Binding and the Phenomenal Unity of Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 8(2), 173-185.
  • Revonsuo A. (1995) Consciousness, Dreams, and Virtual Realities. Philosophical Psychology 8: 35-58.
  • Revonsuo A. (1993) Is There a Ghost in the Cognitive Machinery? Philosophical Psychology 6: 387-405.

Altered states of consciousness

Anesthesia and sleep
The contents and neural mechanisms of consciousness during experimental anesthesia and sleep
This project is conducted in close collaboration with the Anesthesia Mechanisms Group, led by Associate Professor, MD, PhD Harry Scheinin. Our main focus is on the contents of consciousness during unresponsiveness, and the neural mechanisms that underlie the loss and return of the state of consciousness. By using anesthesia and sleep to modulate the state of consciousness, we aim to separate consciousness from responsiveness, and connectedness from disconnectedness. The major methods we use include the pharmacological manipulation of consciousness by anesthetic agents, high-resolution imaging of brain activity, and electrophysiological measurements during anesthesia and sleep. Data concerning the subjective contents of consciousness is collected and combined with brain imaging and neurophysiological measurements.

Principal investigators: Antti Revonsuo, Harry Scheinin, Katja Valli, Roosa Kallionpää, Linda Radek

Simulation theories
Simulation theories of the function of dreaming: Social simulation / Threat simulation
This research line is based on the evolutionary psychological theories of dream function; the threat simulation theory and the social simulation theory. We test whether dream content is specialized in simulating events that have had especially high evolutionary significance during human evolutionary history, such as dangerous and threatening situations or social bonding and interaction with other significant individuals. The methods we use include content analysis of dream diaries, daily logs, experience sampling, interviews, and questionnaires.

Principal investigators: Jarno Tuominen, Katja Valli, Antti Revonsuo

Neurocognitive basis of dreaming
The objective of this project is to study the neural correlates of dream emotions, and the frequency and quality of emotions in dreams, utilizing home dream diaries, and sleep laboratory awakenings and measurements. Our focus lies heavily in methodological issues, such as how data collection (where, when, how) and analysis methods (who, how) affect the results of dream studies.

Principal investigators: Pilleriin Sikka, Antti Revonsuo, Katja Valli​

Prevalence, risk factors and consequences of nightmares
This joint project between University of Turku and National Institute of Health and Welfare investigates the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of frequent nightmares among Finnish adults, utilizing the FINRISK population level epidemiological questionnaire data.

Principal investigators: Nils Sandman, Katja Valli

Health and wellbeing

​​In this project, we combine the positive psychological approach to human health and well-being with neuroscience in investigating the psychological and neural mechanisms of positive states of consciousness using a multilevel framework that integrates molecular, physiological, and psychological measures.

Principal investigators: Pilleriin Sikka, Simone Grassini, Katja Vall

Neural mechanisms of hypnosis
Principal investigators: Sakari Kallio, Antti Revonsuo, Mika Koivisto, Henry Railo, Jarno Tuominen​ll


Research group leader
Antti Revonsuo
Research interests: Visual awareness, altered states of consciousness, sleep and dreaming, evolutionary psychology, philosophy of mind

Senior researchers

Mika Koivisto
Research interests: Visual awareness, attentional processes, altered states of consciousness, visual perception

Sakari Kallio
Research interests:  Altered states of consciousness, hypnosis

Katja Valli
Research interests:  Sleep and dreaming, altered states of consciousness, evolutionary psychology

Henry Railo
Research interests: Visual awareness, eye movements

Niina Salminen-Vaparanta
Research interests: Visual perception, visual awareness

Valtteri Arstila
Research interests: Philosophy of mind, neurophilosophy, time consciousness 

Researchers and PhD candidates

Pilleriin Sikka
Research interests: Sleep and dreaming, altered states of consciousness, well-being, health psychology

Nils Sandman
Research interests: Sleep and dreaming, nightmares, epidemiology, evolutionary psychology

Jarno Tuominen
Research interests: Sleep and dreaming, health psychology, altered states of consciousness

Simone Grassini
Research interests: Evolutionary psychology, environmental psychology, health psychology, visual awareness, attentional processes, visual perception

Heidi Haanila
Research interests: philosophy of mind, self-consciousness, neurophilosophy, altered states of consciousness 

Roosa Kallionpää
Research interests: Altered states of consciousness, sleep and dreams, computational neuroscience

Mikko Hurme
Research interests: Visual perception, visual consciousness

Levente Móró
Research interests: Altered states of consciousness

Linda Radek
Research interests: Anesthesia

Monica Bergman
Research interests: Sleep and dreaming

Former members
Valdas Noreika (University of Cambridge)
Valtteri Arstila (University of Turku)
Sari Laatu
Maria Wilenius-Emet
Mirja Johansson
Ville Rajala​


Published Articles

Grassini, S., Holm, S. K., Railo, H., & Koivisto, M. (2016). Who is afraid of the invisible snake? Subjective visual awareness modulates posterior brain activity for evolutionarily threatening stimuli. Biological Psychology, 121, 53-61.

Railo, H., Tuominen, J., Kaasinen, V., & Pesonen, H. (2016). Dynamic Changes in Cortical Effecti ve Connectivity Underlie Transsaccadic Integration in Humans. Cerebral Cortex.

Sandman, N., Merikanto, I., Määttänen, H., Valli, K., Kronholm, E., Laatikainen, T., ... & Paunio, T. (2016). Winter is coming: nightmares and sleep problems during seasonal affective disorder. Journal of sleep research.

Koivisto, M., Salminen‐Vaparanta, N., Grassini, S., & Revonsuo, A. (2016). Subjective visual awareness emerges prior to P3. European Journal of Neuroscience.

Railo, H., Karhu, V. M., Mast, J., Pesonen, H., & Koivisto, M. (2016). Rapid and accurate processing of multiple objects in briefly presented scenes. Journal of vision, 16(3), 8-8.

Koivisto, M., & Grassini, S. (2016). Neural processing around 200ms after stimulus-onset correlates with subjective visual awareness. Neuropsychologia, 84, 235-243.

Kallio, S., & Koivisto, M. (2016). Seeing Blue As Red: A Hypnotic Suggestion Can Alter Visual Awareness of Colors. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 64(3), 261-284.

Koivisto, M., & Rientamo, E. (2016). Unconscious vision spots the animal but not the dog: Masked priming of natural scenes. Consciousness and Cognition, 41, 10-23.

Koivisto M, Salminen-Vaparanta N, Grassini S, & Revonsuo A (2016). Subjective visual awareness emerges prior to P3. European Journal of Neuroscience 43(12): 1601-1611.

Revonsuo A (2015) Hard to See the Problem? Journal of Consciousness Studies 22, 3-4:52-67.

Sandman N, Valli K, Kronholm E, Revonsuo A, Laatikainen T, Paunio T. (2015) Nightmares: risk factors among the Finnish general adult population. Sleep 38(4):507-14.

Railo H, Revonsuo A, Koivisto M (2015) Behavioural and electrophysiological evidence for fast emergence of visual awareness. Neuroscience of Consciousness 1: 1-15.

Valli K, Frauscher B, Peltomaa T, Gschliesser V, Revonsuo A, Högl B. (2015) Dreaming furiously? A sleep laboratory study on the dream content of people with Parkinson's disease and with or without rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Sleep Medicine 16(3):419-27.

Koivisto, Mika; Kastrati, Granit; Revonsuo, Antti (2014) Recurrent Processing Enhances Visual Awareness but Is Not Necessary for Fast Categorization of Natural Scenes. Journal Of Cognitive Neuroscience  Volume: 26   Issue: 2   Pages: 223-231.

Sikka, Pilleriin; Valli, Katja; Virta, Tiina; Revonsuo, Antti (2014) I know how you felt last night, or do I? Self- and external ratings of emotions in REM sleep dreams. Consciousness and Cognition  Volume: 25   Pages: 51-66 .

Långsjö J, Revonsuo A & Scheinin H (2014) Harnessing anesthesia and brain imaging for the study of consciousness. Current Pharmaceutical Design. Volume: 20   Issue: 26   Pages: 4211-4224

Railo, H (2014). Bilateral and two-item advantage in subitizing. Vision Research, 103, 41-48. 

Koivisto M, Kirjanen S, Revonsuo A, Kallio S. (2013) A preconscious neural mechanism of hypnotically altered colors: a double case study. PLoS One. 2013 Aug 5;8(8):e70900. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070900

Sandman N, Valli K, Kronholm E, Ollila HM, Revonsuo A, Laatikainen T, Paunio T. (2013) Nightmares: Prevalence among the Finnish General Adult Population and War Veterans during 1972-2007. Sleep 36(7):1041-1050. 

Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina; Vanni, Simo; Noreika, Valdas, Valiulis V, Móró L, Revonsuo, Antti. (2013) Subjective Characteristics of TMS-Induced Phosphenes Originating in Human V1 and V2. Cerebral Cortex Volume: 24   Issue: 10   Pages: 2751-60 

Intaite M, Revonsuo A, & Koivisto M. (2013) Perceptual reversals of Necker stimuli during Intermittent presentation with limited attentional resources. Psychophysiology 50: 82-96

Långsjö JW, Alkire MT, Kaskinoro K, Hayama H, Maksimow A, Kaisti KK, Aalto S, Aantaa R, Jääskeläinen SK, Revonsuo A, Scheinin H. (2012) Returning from oblivion: imaging the neural core of consciousness. Journal of  Neuroscience 32:4935-4943.

Salminen-Vaparanta N, Koivisto M, Noreika V, Vanni S, Revonsuo A. (2013) Neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation suggests that area V2 is necessary for visual awareness. Neuropsychologia. 50(7):1621-7.

Koivisto M, Henriksson L, Revonsuo A, Railo H. (2012) Unconscious response priming by shape depends on geniculostriate visual projection. European Journal of Neuroscience 35(4):623-33.

Railo H, Salminen-Vaparanta N, Henriksson L, Revonsuo A, Koivisto M (2012) Unconscious and conscious processing of color rely on activity in early visual cortex: a TMS study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 24(4):819-29.

Henriksson, L., Karvonen, J., Salminen-Vaparanta, N., Railo, H., & Vanni, S. (2012). Retinotopic Maps, Spatial Tuning, and Locations of Human Visual Areas in Surface Coordinates Characterized with Multifocal and Blocked fMRI Designs. PLOS One 7:e36859 

Kallio S, Hyönä J, Revonsuo A, Sikka P, Nummenmaa L. (2011) The existence of a hypnotic state revealed by eye movements. PLoS One 6(10):e26374.

Noreika V, Jylhänkangas L, Móró L, Valli K, Kaskinoro K, Aantaa R, Scheinin H, Revonsuo A. (2011) Consciousness lost and found: subjective experiences in an unresponsive state. Brain and Cognition 77(3):327-34.

Valli K, Frauscher B, Gschliesser V, Wolf E, Falkenstetter T, Schönwald SV, Ehrmann L, Zangerl A, Marti I, Boesch SM, Revonsuo A, Poewe W, Högl B. (2012) Can observers link dream content to behaviours in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder? A cross-sectional experimental pilot study. Journal of Sleep Research 21(1):21-9.

Railo H, Koivisto M, Revonsuo A. (2011) Tracking the processes behind conscious perception: a review of event-related potential correlates of visual consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 20(3):972-83.

Mika Koivisto, Henry Railo, Antti Revonsuo, Simo Vanni, and Niina Salminen-Vaparanta (2011) Recurrent processing in V1/V2 contributes to categorization of natural scenes. Journal of Neuroscience 31(7):2488-92.

Móró, L., Noreika, V., Kallio, S., & Revonsuo, A. (2011). Hypnotizability, Sleepiness, and Subjective Experience. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 59(2), 211-224.

Johanson M Valli K, Revonsuo A. (2011) How to assess ictal consciousness. Behavioural Neurology 24(1):11-20.

Railo, H., Tallus, J., & Hämäläinen, H. (2011). Right visual field advantage for perceived contrast: Correlation with an auditory bias and handedness. Brain and Cognition, 77, 391-400. 

Intaite M, Koivisto M, Ruksenas O, Revonsuo A (2010) Reversal negativity and bistable stimuli:  Attention, awareness, or something else? Brain and Cognition 74 (1): 24-34.

Noreika, V., Valli, K., Markkula, J., Seppälä, K., Revonsuo, A. (2010) Dream bizarreness and waking thought in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 178(3):562-4..

Salminen-Vaparanta, N, Noreika, V, Revonsuo, A, Koivisto, M, Vanni S (2012) Is selective primary visual cortex stimulation achievable with TMS? Human Brain Mapping 33(3):652-65.

Gavie J & Revonsuo A (2010) The future of lucid dreaming treatment. International Journal of Dream Research.3(1): 13-15.

Revonsuo A & Koivisto M (2010) Electrophysiological evidence for phenomenal consciousness. Cognitive Neuroscience 1(3): 225-227.

Koivisto M & Revonsuo A (2010) Event-related brain potential correlates of visual awareness. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 34(6):922-34.

Koivisto M & Revonsuo A (2009) The effects of perceptual load on semantic processing under inattention. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 16(5):864-8.

Noreika V, Valli K, Lahtela H & Revonsuo A  (2009) Early-night serial awakenings as a new paradigm for studies on NREM dreaming. International Journal of Psychophysiology 74(1):14-8.

Koivisto M, Kainulainen P & Revonsuo A (2009) The relationship between attention and awareness: Evidence from ERP studies. Neuropsychologia 47: 2891-2899.

Revonsuo A, Kallio S & Sikka P (2009) What is an Altered State of Consciousness? Philosophical Psychology 22:187-204.

Valli K & Revonsuo A (2009)  The threat simulation theory in the light of recent empirical evidence—A Review.  The American Journal of Psychology 122:17-38.

Jylkkä, J., Railo, H., & Haukioja, J. (2009). Psychological Essentialism and Semantic Externalism: Evidence for Externalism in Lay Speakers’ Language Use. Philosophical Psychology, 22, 37–60

Johanson, M, Valli K, Revonsuo A, Chaplin J, Wedlund JE (2008) Alterations in the contents of consciousness in partial epileptic seizures. Epilepsy & Behavior 13(2): 366-371.

Revonsuo A & Valli K (2008) How to test the threat-simulation theory. Consciousness and Cognition 17: 1292-1296.

Koivisto M & Revonsuo A (2008) The role of selective attention in visual awareness of stimulus features: electrophysiological studies. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience 8(2): 195-210.

Valli K, Strandholm T, Sillanmäki L & Revonsuo A (2008) Dreams are more negative than real life - Implications for the function of dreaming. Cognition and Emotion 22 (5), 833-861.

Koivisto M & Revonsuo A (2008) The role of unattended distractors in sustained inattentional blindness. Psychological Research 72: 39-48.

Railo H, Koivisto M, Revonsuo A & Hannula M (2008) The role of attention in subitizing. Cognition 107(1): 82-104.

Johanson M, Valli K, Revonsuo A & Wedlund JE (2008) Content analysis of subjective experiences in partial epileptic seizures. Epilepsy & Behavior 12(1):170-182.

Koivisto M. & Revonsuo A. (2008) Comparison of event related potentials in attentional blink and repetition blindness. Brain Research. 1189:115-126

Koivisto M, Lähteenmäki M, Sørensen TA, Vagnkilde S, Overgaard M, Revonsuo A (2008) The earliest electrophysiological correlate of consciousness? Brain and Cognition 66: 91-103.

Haarala C, Takio F, Rintee T, Laine M, Koivisto M, Revonsuo A, Hämäläinen H (2007) Pulsed and continuous wave mobile phone exposure over left versus right hemisphere: effects on human cognitive function. Bioelectromagnetics 28(4):289-95.

Valli K, Lenasdotter S, MacGregor O & Revonsuo A (2007) A test of the threat simulation theory - Replication in an independent sample. Sleep and Hypnosis 9(1):30-46.

Wilenius M & Revonsuo A (2007) Timing of the earliest ERP correlate of visual awareness. Psychophysiology  44(5): 703-710.

Koivisto M & Revonsuo A (2007) How meaning shapes seeing. Psychological Science 18(10): 845-849.

Koivisto M & Revonsuo A (2007) Electrophysiological correlates of visual consciousness and selective attention. Neuroreport 18(8): 753-756.

Fingelkurts AA, Fingelkurts AA, Kallio S & Revonsuo A (2007) Cortex functional connectivity as a neurophysiological correlate of hypnosis: An EEG case study. Neuropsychologia 45(7):  1452-1462.

Fingelkurts AA, Kallio S & Revonsuo A (2007) Hypnosis induces a changed composition of brain oscillations in EEG: A case study. Contemporary Hypnosis 24(1): 3-18.

Krause CM, Bjornberg CH, Pesonen M, Hulten A, Liesivuori T, Koivisto M, Revonsuo A, Laine M, Hamalainen H. (2006) Mobile phone effects on children's event-related oscillatory EEG during an auditory memory task. International Journal of Radiation Biology 82 (6): 443-450.

Valli K, Revonsuo A, Pälkäs O, & Punamäki R-L (2006) The effect of trauma on dream content: A field study of Palestinian children. Dreaming 16(2): 63-87.

Overgaard M, Koivisto M, Sorensen TA, Vangilde S & Revonsuo A (2006) The electrophysiology of introspection. Consciousness and Cognition 15: 662-672.

Valli K & Revonsuo A (2006) Recurrent Dreams: Recurring Threat Simulations? Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2): 464-469.

Koivisto M, Revonsuo A & Lehtonen M (2006) Independence of visual awareness from the scope of attention: An electrophysiological study. Cerebral Cortex 16(3):415-424.

Kallio S & Revonsuo A (2005) The observer remains hidden. Contemporary Hypnosis 22: 150-155.

Kallio S, Revonsuo A & Lang H (2005) Can hypnosis and hypnotic hallucination change information processing in the brain? Hypnos 32: 25-35.

Haarala C, Bergman M, Laine M, Revonsuo A,  Koivisto M & Hämäläinen H (2005) The electromagnetic field emitted by 902 MHz mobile phones shows no effects on children's cognitive function. Bioelectromagnetics Supplement 7: S144-S150.

Koivisto M, Revonsuo A & Salminen N (2005) Independence of visual awareness from attention at early processing stages. Neuroreport 16(8): 817-821.

Koivisto M & Revonsuo A. (2005) Pre-change ERPs predict change blindness in various attention conditions. Neuroreport 16(8): 869-873.

Kallio S & Revonsuo A (2005) Altering the state of the altered state debate: reply to commentaries . Contemporary Hypnosis 22(1): 44-55.

Valli, K., Revonsuo, A., Pälkäs, O., Ismail, K.H., Ali, K.J., Punamäki, R.L.(2005) The threat simulation theory of the evolutionary function of dreaming: Evidence from dreams of traumatized children. Consciousness and Cognition 14(1):188-218. 

Koivisto M, Hyönä J & Revonsuo A (2004) The effects of eye movements, spatial attention, and stimulus features on inattentional blindness. Vision Research 44(27):3211-3221.

Haarala C, Ek M, Björnberg L, Laine M, Revonsuo A, Koivisto M & Hämäläinen H (2004) 902 MHz mobile phone does not affect short term memory in humans. Bioelectromagnetics 25(6):452-6

Krause CM, Haarala C, Sillanmaki L, Koivisto M, Alanko K, Revonsuo A, Laine M, Hamalainen H. (2004) Effects of electromagnetic field emitted by cellular phones on the EEG during an auditory memory task: a double blind replication study. Bioelectromagnetics. 25(1):33-40.

Laatu S, Revonsuo A, Pihko L, Portin R, Rinne J (2004) Visual object recognition deficits in Parkinson’s Disease. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 10: 227-233.

Koivisto M & Revonsuo A (2004) Preconscious analysis of global structure: Evidence from masked priming. Visual Cognition 11(1): 105-127. 

Revonsuo A (2003) Notes on the Foundations of Consciousness Research. Bulletin fra Forum for Antropologisk Psykologi nr. 13/2003: 35-43.

Wilenius-Emet M, Revonsuo A & Ojanen V (2004). An electrophysiological correlate of human visual awareness.  Neuroscience Letters 354: 38-41.

Revonsuo A (2003) Consciousness as Phenomenal Ether? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26(4): 422-423.

Kallio S & Revonsuo A (2003) Towards an empirically testable account of hypnosis. Contemporary Hypnosis 20(3): 111-164.

Koivisto M & Revonsuo A (2003) Interhemispheric categorization of pictures and words. Brain and Cognition 52(2):181-191. 

Johanson M, Revonsuo A, Chaplin J & Wedlund JE. (2003) Level and content of consciousness in connection with partial epileptic seizures. Epilepsy and Behavior 4(3):283-288.

Laatu S, Revonsuo A, Jäykkä H, Portin R, Rinne J (2003) Visual object recognition in Alzheimer’s disease: Deficits in semantic processing. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 108(2): 82-89.

Haarala C, Björnberg L, Ek M, Laine M, Revonsuo A, Koivisto M & Hämäläinen H (2003) Effect of a 902 electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones on human cognitive function: a replication study. Bioelectromagnetics 24:283-288, 2003.

Koivisto M & Revonsuo A (2003) An ERP study of change detection, change blindness and visual awareness. Psychophysiology 40: 423-429.

Ojanen V, Revonsuo A & Sams M (2003) Visual awareness of low-contrast stimuli is reflected in event-related brain potentials. Psychophysiology 40:192-197.

Koivisto M & Revonsuo A (2003) Object recognition in the cerebral hemispheres as revealed by visual field experiments. Laterality 8(2):135-153.

Revonsuo A (2002) The Brain Basis of Altered Consciousness. [Invited review of J. Allan Hobson : The Dream Drugstore, MIT Press]. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 23(4): 195-196.

Kujala P, Portin R, Revonsuo A, Ruutiainen J. (1994) Automatic and Controlled Information Processing in Multiple Sclerosis. Brain 117: 1115-1126.

Revonsuo A & Tarkko K (2002) Binding in Dreams. Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (7): 3-24.

Revonsuo A (2001) Dreaming and the place of consciousness in nature. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24:5, 1000-1001.

Koivisto M & Revonsuo A (2001) Cognitive representations underlying the N400 priming effect. Cognitive Brain Research 12: 487-490.

Laatu S, Revonsuo A, Hämäläinen P, Ojanen V & Ruutiainen J (2001) Visual object recognition in multiple sclerosis. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 185: 77-88.

Revonsuo A (2001) Putting color back where it belongs. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (1): 78-84.

Revonsuo A (2001) Discovering the mechanisms of consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (3): 44-50.

Revonsuo A (2001) Can functional brain imaging discover consciousness in the brain? Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (3): 3-23.

Koivisto M,, Haarala C, Krause C, Revonsuo A,  Laine M & Hämäläinen H (2001) GSM phone signal does not produce subjective symptoms. Bioelectromagnetics 22:212-215. 

Kallio S, Revonsuo A, Hämäläinen H, Markela J & Gruzelier J (2001) Anterior brain functions and hypnosis: A test of the frontal hypothesis. The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 49: 95-106. 

Krause CM, Sillanmäki L, Koivisto M, Häggqvist A, Saarela C, Revonsuo A, Laine M & Hämäläinen H (2000) Effects of electromagnetic field emitted by cellular phones on the electroencephalogram during a visual working memory task. International Journal of Radiation Biology 76(12):1659-67.

Revonsuo A (2000) Consciousness as a research problem in cognitive neuroscience. Nordisk Psykologi 52 (4): 263-276.

Revonsuo A (2000) The contents of consciousness during sleep: Some theoretical problems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6): 995-996.

Revonsuo A. (2000) Did ancestral humans dream for their lives? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23(6): 1063-1082.

Revonsuo A (2000) The Reinterpretation of Dreams: An evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6): 877-901.

Revonsuo A & Valli K (2000) Dreaming and Consciousness: Testing the threat simulation theory of the function of dreaming. Psyche 6,

Koivisto M & Revonsuo A (2000) Semantic Priming by Pictures and Words in the Cerebral Hemispheres. Cognitive Brain Research 10: 91-98.

Koivisto, M., Krause, C.M., Revonsuo, A., Laine, M., & Hämäläinen H. (2000). The effects of electromagnetic field emitted by GSM phones on working memory. NeuroReport 11, 1641-1643.

Krause CM, Sillanmäki L, Koivisto M, Häggkvist A, Saarela C, Revonsuo A, Laine M & Hämäläinen H (2000) Effects of electromagnetic field emitted by cellular phones on the EEG during a memory task. NeuroReport 11: 761-764.

Portin R, Laatu S, Revonsuo A & Rinne UK (2000) Impairment of Semantic Knowledge in Parkinson’s Disease. Archives of Neurology 57: 1338-1343.

Koivisto M, Revonsuo A, Krause C, Haarala C, Sillanmäki L, Laine M & Hämäläinen H (2000). Effects of 902 MHz Electromagnetic Field Emitted by Cellular Phones on Response Times in Humans. NeuroReport 11: 413-415.

Kallio S, Revonsuo A, Lauerma H, Hämäläinen H & Lang H (1999) The MMN Amplitude Increases in Hypnosis — A Case Study. NeuroReport 10 (17): 3579-3582.

Portin R, Polo-Kantola P, Polo P, Koskinen T, Revonsuo A, Irjala K & Erkkola R (1999) Serum Estrogen Level, Attention, Memory and Other  Cognitive Functions in Middle-Aged Women. Climacteric 2: 115-123.

Portin R, Kovala T, Polo-Kantola P, Revonsuo A, Müller K & Matikainen E (2000) Does P3 reflect attentional or memory performances, or cognition more generally? Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 41 (1): 31-40.

Revonsuo A (1999) Neuroscience and the explanation of psychological phenomena. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5): 847-849.

Revonsuo A & Newman J (1999) Binding and Consciousness [Editorial]. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2), 123-127.

Laatu S, Hämäläinen P, Revonsuo A, Portin R & Ruutiainen J (1999) Semantic memory deficit in multiple sclerosis: Impaired understanding of conceptual meanings. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 162: 152-161.

Revonsuo A (1999) Binding and the Phenomenal Unity of Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 8(2), 173-185.

Revonsuo A (1998) Visual perception and subjective visual awareness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21(6): 769-770.

Revonsuo A (1998) Troubles with Bubbles? Consciousness and Cognition 7: 206-209.

Revonsuo A. (1993) Is There a Ghost in the Cognitive Machinery? Philosophical Psychology 6: 387-405.

Revonsuo A, Portin R, Juottonen K & Rinne J (1998) Semantic processing of spoken words in Alzheimer's disease. An electrophysiological study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 10(3): 408-420.

Revonsuo A, Wilenius-Emet M, Kuusela J & Lehto M (1997) The neural generation of a unified illusion in human vision. NeuroReport 8 (18): 3867-3870.

Revonsuo, A. (1997) How to take consciousness seriously in cognitive neuroscience. Communication & Cognition 30 (3/4):185-206.

Vanni S, Revonsuo A & Hari R (1997) Modulation of parieto-occipital alpha rhythym during object detection. The Journal of Neuroscience 17, 7141-7147.

Laatu S, Portin R, Revonsuo A, Tuisku S & Rinne J. (1997) Knowledge of Concept Meanings in Alzheimer's Disease. Cortex 33, 27-45.

Vanni S, Revonsuo A, Saarinen J & Hari R. (1996) Visual awareness of objects correlates with activity of right occipital cortex. NeuroReport 8: 183-186.

Juottonen K, Revonsuo A & Lang H. (1996) Dissimilar Age Influences on Two ERP Waveforms (LPC & N400) Reflecting Semantic Context Effect. Cognitive Brain Research 4: 99-107.

Revonsuo A. (1995) Conscious and Nonconscious Control of Action. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18:265-266. 

Revonsuo A. (1995) Words Interact with Colors in a Globally Aphasic Patient: Evidence from a Stroop-Like Task. Cortex 31, 377-386.

Kujala P, Portin R, Revonsuo A & Ruutiainen J. (1995) Attention-Related Performance in Two Cognitively Different Subgroups of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 59: 77-82. 

Revonsuo A. (1995) Consciousness, Dreams, and Virtual Realities. Philosophical Psychology 8: 35-58.

Vanni S, Revonsuo A, Saarinen J & Hari R. (1996) Visual awareness of objects correlates with activity of right occipital cortex. NeuroReport 8: 183-186. 

Revonsuo A. (1994) The "Multiple Drafts" Model and the Ontology of Consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17: 177-178. 

Revonsuo A, Portin R, Koivikko L, Rinne J & Rinne U. (1993) Slowing of Information Processing in Parkinson's Disease. Brain and Cognition 21: 87-110. 



Revonsuo A, Tuominen J, & Valli K (2016b) The Simulation Theories of Dreaming: How to Make Theoretical Progress in Dream Science. In: Metzinger T & Windt J (Eds.) Open MIND: Philosophy and the Mind Sciences in the 21st Century, Vol. 2, pp. 1341-1348. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Revonsuo A, Tuominen J, & Valli K (2016a) The Avatars in the Machine: Dreaming as a Simulation of Social Reality. In: Metzinger T & Windt J (Eds.) Open MIND: Philosophy and the Mind Sciences in the 21st Century, Vol. 2, pp. 1295-1322. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Revonsuo A (2015) The future of consciousness science: From empirical correlations to theoretical explanations. In: Steven M. Miller (Ed.) The Constitution of Phenomenal Consciousness. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, p. 260-270.

Valli K & Revonsuo A (2009) Sleep: Dreaming data and theories. In:  In: Banks WP (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Consciousness, 341-355.  San Diego: Academic Press.

Revonsuo A (2009) Altered and exceptional states of consciousness. In: Banks WP (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Consciousness, 9-21. San Diego: Academic Press.

Revonsuo A (2009) Binding problem. In: Bayne T, Cleeremans A, Wilken P. (Eds.) Oxford Companion to Consciousness, 101-105. Oxford University Press.

Valli K & Revonsuo A (2007) Evolutionary psychological approaches to dream content. In: Barrett, D. & MacNamara, P. (Eds) The new science of dreaming Vol 3: Cultural and theoretical perspectives, 95-116. Westport, CT, US: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.

Revonsuo A (2005) The Self in Dreams. In: Feinberg TE & Keenan JP (Eds.) The Lost Self: Pathologies of the Brain and Mind, 206-219. New York: Oxford University Press.

Revonsuo A (2003) Thalamocortical interactions and binding. In: Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science,  372-375. London: Macmillan Reference.

Revonsuo A (2001) On the Nature of Explanation in Neurosciences. In: Machamer P, Grush R & McLaughlin P (Eds.) Theory and Method in the Neurosciences, 45-69. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Revonsuo A, Johanson M, Wedlund JE & Chaplin J (2000) The Zombies Among Us: Consciousness and Automatic Behaviour. In: Rossetti Y & Revonsuo A (Eds.) Beyond Dissociations: Interaction between conscious and nonconscious processing, 331-351. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Revonsuo A & Rossetti Y (2000) Dissociation and Interaction:Windows to the hidden mechanisms of consciousness. In: Rossetti Y & Revonsuo A (Eds.) Beyond Dissociations: Interaction between conscious and nonconscious processing, 353-367. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Revonsuo A (2000) Prospects for a Scientific Research Program on Consciousness. In: Metzinger T (Ed.) Neural Correlates of Consciousness, 57-75. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Revonsuo A (1999) Towards a Cognitive Neuroscience of Consciousness. In: Hameroff, Kaszniak & Chalmers (Eds.) Towards a Science of Consciousness III: The Third Tucson Discussions and Debates, 87-97. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Revonsuo A, Kamppinen M & Sajama S. (1994) The Riddle of Consciousness. In: A. Revonsuo & M. Kamppinen (eds.) Consciousness in Philosophy and Cognitive Neuroscience, 1-31. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Revonsuo A. (1994) In Search of the Science of Consciousness. In: A. Revonsuo & M. Kamppinen (eds.) Consciousness in Philosophy and Cognitive Neuroscience, 249-285. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Revonsuo A. (1993) Cognitive Models of Consciousness. In: Matti Kamppinen (Ed.)  Consciousness, Cognitive Schemata, and Relativism. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Studies in Cognitive Systems Series, 27-130. 

Kamppinen M & Revonsuo A. (1993) Ultimate Relativism. In: Matti Kamppinen (Ed.)  Consciousness, Cognitive Schemata, and Relativism. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Studies in Cognitive Systems Series, 229-242.

Monographies & Edited Volumes

Revonsuo A (2017) Foundations of Consciousness. London: Routledge. (in press)​

Revonsuo A. (2010) Consciousness, The Science of Subjectivity. London: Psychology Press, (Hardback and Paperback editions, 325 pp.)​

Revonsuo A (2006) Inner Presence. Consciousness as a Biological Phenomenon. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (First Hardback Edition, 473 pp. 2006; First Paperback Edition, 473 pp, 2009.)

Rossetti Y & Revonsuo A (Eds.) (2000)  Beyond Dissociation: Interaction Between Dissociated Implicit and Explicit Processing. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. (372 pp.)​

Revonsuo A & Kamppinen M. (Eds.) (1994) Consciousness in Philosophy and Cognitive Neuros­cience. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (300 pp.)



Käyttäytymistieteellinen tutkimuskatsaus 1/2024 (2024)

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